Gramadach Dhá-theangthach

Connradh na Geadhilge (1906)

Tadhg O Coindealbháin



GRAMADACH DHÁ-THEANGTHACH:



An Ghaedhilg agus an Béarla ar aghaidh a chéile.



TADHG O COINDEALBHÁIN



do scríobh.



AN t-ATH-CHLÓ,
AGUS RÉAMHRÁDH AGUS FOCLÓIR GRAMADAMHAIL



ó láimh



SHEOSAIMH LAOIDE



i n-éinfheacht leis.



ar n-a chur amach
do
CONNRADH NA GAEDHILGE



I mBaile Átha Cliath.



1906


L. iia


PRINTED BY
SEALY, BRYERS AND WALKERS.
MIDDLE ABBEY STREET.
DUBLIN.


L. i


CLÁR AN LEABHAIR.



Réamhrádh iii



An Aibchidir Dhéidheanach 1



An Aibchidir Ghaedhealach 2



An Ogham Chraobh 3



Óirléaghadh 5



Trácht ar an Litribh 5



Canamhain na nGothaidhe is
na gComhfhuaimne 8



Canamhna na nDeaghfhoghracha
is na Treaghfhoghracha 9



De na Gothaidhibh, Deaghghogh-
raibh is na Treaghfhoghraibh 10



Ar Litribh Dúbalta 17



Trácht ar na Comhfhuaimnibh
nó Consoinibh 23



Trácht ar an Malartachaibh 25



Ar an Seasmhachaibh 29



Trácht ar na Fuaimnibh Faith-
reacha 31



Clár Canamhna na gComh-
fhuaimneadh Séimhidhe agus
Dúbalta 33



Ar na hUrdhubhadhaibh 41



Duair is Duairghiollaidhe
Sealbhacha 43



Deich nDiúltadh na Gaedhilge 46



Trácht ar Shanas na bhFocal 47



Trácht ar an Alt 50



Soidhbhris na nDuar 51



Na Duairghiollaidhe 70



Na Sealbhaigh 72



An Briathar 73



Sruithbhriathra Gníomharthacha 104



Sruithbhriathra Fulaingtheacha 105



Lánfhocla d'Éintsiolla 108



Lánfhocla is Tládhfhocla, &rl. 110



Duaisghiollaidhe is a gCom-
aisgtheacha 117



Briathra d'Éintsiolla 118



Briathra de Dhá Shiolla 120



Briathra de Thrí Shiolla 126



Réimhbhriathra 129



Comnaisg 132



Siudhuair 133



Uailbhreasa 133



FOCLÓIR GRAMADAMHAIL 135


L. ii



L. iii


REÁMHRÁDH.



Sa bhliadhain 1825 do
chuir Tadhg ó Coindealbháin
toradh a shaothair i gcló .i.
A Grammatical Introduc-
tion to the Irish Language,
&c. Sgéal dá-theangthach
dob' eadh é .i. an Ghaedhilg
agus an Béarla ar aghaidh
a chéile ann ar gach éin-
leathanach. Ní holc an
leabhar do chuir Mac Uí
Choindealbháin le chéile, go
mór-mhór má bheirimíd i
gcuimhne caidé an cor
do bhí ar an oideachas
Gaedhealach fá'n taca sain.
Ba mhaith an sgoláire é
Tadhg ó Coindealbháin. Ba
dhuine de na sgoláiríbh
dúthchasacha dob' fhearr do
bhí i gConnachtaibh é le n-a
linn féin. Is léir dúinn
ar an ngramadaigh do chuir
sé le chéile go raibh taithighe
an-mhaith aige ar na láimh-
sgríbhnibh agus ar an sean-
Ghaedhilg mar an gcéadna
fá mar do tuigtí í an uair
sin ó bhéaloideas ár luchta
léighinn féin. Ní raibh luadh


L. iv


ná luadhthairt fós ar na
Gearmánchaibh ná ar a
gcuid oibre sa pháirc sin,
acht corr-Ghaedheal sa tír
ag baint eolais ar an
sean-teangaidh tré ghluai-
seannaibh agus tagarthaibh
na seanchaidhe nGaedhealach.
D'fhoghluim Tadhg mórán
ar an gcuma so — cár
bh'iongnadh dhó agus é 'na
mhaighistir sgoile? — agus
do chuir sé síos go cruinn
é i n-a sgríbhinn. Má tá
locht ar bith air, is é badh
tógtha air nár thogh sé i
gcomhnaidhe an focal ba
mhó bhí i n-úsáid i dtráchtan-
naibh gramadamhla, m. sh.,
i n-aghaidh nomen do rug sé
“duais” do roghain tar
“ainm,” cé gurb é an
dara ceann an focal do
bhí riamh ag lucht grama-
daighe go bhfios damh-sa.
Mar sin féin, do samh-
luigheadh do Chonnradh na
Gaedhilge nár bh'olc an
bheart dóibh an leabhar do
chur amach an ath-uair agus
a fheabhas do rinne Tadhg a
ghnó san iomlán.


L. v


Ó thárla nach é an focal
is coitchionnta atá isna
téxannaibh gramadaighe do
gheibhtear ag Mac Uí
Choindealbháin is gach uile
chás, do chonncas dúinn
nár mhisde an leabhar
foclóir do chur leis 'na
mbeadh comhroghain cheart
díobh ar fághail ann. Cá
bhfríoth iad? arsa tusa, a
léightheoir. Ionnus cheana
nach beir i bhfad aineolach
sa cheist, bhéarfam anois
fios ár n-ughdar-ne dhuit.



A leithéid seo. Do
bhaineamar an chuid is mó
dár gcuid focal ar Glu-
aiseannaibh Shan Gallen
.i. na gluaiseanna
gramadamhla do sgríobh
eaglaisigh Ghaedheal-
acha ar ghramadaigh Laidne
Phrisciani i Mainistir
Ghaill i dTír na
Suíssach. Tomás O Nuall-
áin do chuir tús ar an
obair sin agus sinn féin
do chuir críoch air. Níor
bh'é sin ár n-éin-éadáil ó'n
gcuairt. Do bhaineamar
fós beagán ar Uraiceacht


L. vi


na n-Éigeas — tá an trácht
sain lom-lán díobh, agus
má tá féin, ní hé gach éin-
cheann aca, fóiríor, oireas
i gceart do'n aimsir seo.
Áilbhlas is mó atá san
Uraiceacht, agus cár
bh'iongnadh dhúinn dá
n-abróchaimís go n-oirfeadh
leabhar ann féin do'n
sgéal sain amháin? Do
chuartuigheamar gramadach
Mhic Cuirtín agus Uí
Bheaglaoich mar aon leo
sain, agus fuaramar
mórán focal ann. Éadáil
eile dhúinn a bhfuil i
ndeireadh gramadaighe Uí
Bhriain díobh. Tá cuid de
fhoclaibh an Choindealbhán-
aigh sa bhfoclóir mar an
gcéadna. Fá dheireadh
thiar thall níor dhearmada-
mar caint na ndaoine, go
háirithe nuair do oir sé
d'ár ngnó, m. sh., “tá dul
na Gaedhilge air,” &rl.



Ní hionann focal gram-
adamhail do bhí ag Gaedhea-
laibh gach éan-uair. Ní
abróchainn ná go bhfuil dá
chineál focal gramadaighe


L. vii


againn i meamram .i.
focail na ngramadach
agus focail na n-éigeas.
B'fhéidir linn a rádh go
dtáinig tonn athruighthe ar
an bhfoclughadh bhí aca chuige
trí huaire ar a laighead.



Féach:



Laidin



Neutrum



Gaedhilg Ughdar



néutar Gluais. Sh.G.



neodar Ur. na n-É



neimhinsgne Aimsir nua



Na focail atá isna
Gluaiseannaibh do baineadh
mórán díobh go díreach ar
an Laidin. Ní hamhlaidh
do'n aimsir nua: Do
bhíodh focail úr-nua ghlan-
Ghaedhilge dá gcumadh agus
dá gcur i n-úsáid go
dtí an aimsir sin féin.
Féach:



Laidin



positivum



Gluaiseanna



posit



Aimsir nua



Moladh nó
díomholadh



comparativum



comparit



iomarbháidh



superlativum



superlait



airdiomarbháidh


L. viii


Do cuireadh céim eile
leo sain san aimsir
dhéidheanaigh .i. aibhriughadh,
m. sh., ro-fhoghlumtha.



Is léir ar an méid sin
nach deachaidh tobar eoluis
na gramadaighe riamh i
ndísg imeasg Gaedheal.
Ní rabhadar éan-lá riamh
nach tugaidís aire mhaith
do'n ghramadaigheacht go
fiú lochta bheith ortha dá
thaobh, agus gurab 'in é an
fáth go bhfuil an litriughadh
nach mór gan athrughadh
uatha go dtí an lá atá
indiu ann.



Tá roinnt focal úr-nua
annso mar an gcéadna.
Ní gan fáth atáid ar
fághail. Tá caint gram-
adamhail ag baint leis an
aimsir seo, tá sain —
caint nár smaoin na
nAlexandraigh riamh ar a
leithéid — caint nár theas-
tuigh ó na gramadachaibh
Rómhánacha, cé go dteas-
tuigheann uainne go cruaidh
indiu. Sin é dob' adhbhar
do “athaiceannda,” do
“aithbheart,” agus do chuid


L. ix


eile dhíobh. Is dóigh linn,
dá síorfaidhe páirc na
gramadaighe go léir, gurab
iad so féin na cinn is mó
'na mbeadh duine 'na
ngábhadh, ag cur síos dó ar
ghramadaigh. Na focail is
simplidhe atá ann .i. ainm,
uimhir, briathar, &rl., tá
siad ag mórán daoine
faoi seo. Ní hé sin do
smaointibh ealadhanta, is
beag de dhaoinibh 'na bhfuilid
aca. Caidé an mhaith dúinn
foclóir do chur le chéile,
má gheillimíd d'ár
ndeacraíbh féin? Sin é
díreach fá ndear do'n
Ghaedhilg gan dul chum cinn
i n-a cuid focal ealadhanta,
agus focail úr-nua
Gréigise dá síorchur leis
an Saxbhéarla ó ló go ló!
Féachtar ar homoeoteleuton
agus ar a leithéidíbh. Ní
healadha do theangaidh go
deimhin an gníomh sain
“stad stagúin i mbéal
bearnan.” Ní hé an lag-
mhisneach do chosain an
bhearna riamh, acht an
croidhe calma, croidhe nár


L. x


thuit riamh ar an té
ar leis é agus nach tuit-
fidh.



Do shaoileamar gur
bh'fhearr dúinn gan éan-
athrughadh do chur i saothar
Thaidhg Uí Choindealbháin
acht amháin cuid de na
somplaíbh sean-Ghaedhilge
do bhualadh amach. B'í sin
comhairle thug duine d'ár
gcuid léightheoirí dhúinn.
Dá réir sin, d'fhágamar
an t-Oilbhéimeach agus an
t-Iriséachtach le chéile i
ndeilbh na mbriathar ó
thárla nár mhaith linn éan-
fhocal mínighthe do chailleadh
dár cuireadh i gcaint na
gramadaighe. Tuigeadh an
mac léighinn, ámh, nach
gnáthach indiu acht éin-
cheann amháin do chur síos,
.i. an Coinghiollach mar
ainm air, i n-aghaidh an
dá thaobh. Is so-dhéanta
d'éinne an ceartughadh
sain.



Níor cheart go mbeadh
ró-ionntaoibh nó sár-
mhuighin ag an bpobal ar
an leabhar so. Ní fhuil


L. xi


ann, mar adéarfaidhe, acht
mar do bheadh siubhal gearr
tré ghort achrannach aimh-
réidh focal na gramadaighe
Gaedhealaighe 'n-ar féidir
a rádh 'na thaobh go bhfuil
cruithneacht agus fiadhaile
nó luibhearnach tré n-a
chéile ann. Is dócha go
bhfuil an iomad focal thíos
againn. Má tá féin, nach
fearr go mór an sgéal
sain 'ná dá n-abraimís le
focal éigin “Ní ceart
duit-se bheith ag fás ins
an ghort” agus é ghlanadh
as an slighe láithreach
bonn? An dream a
thiocfas i n-ár ndiaidh,
ortha-san bhíodh glanadh an
ghuirt ghramadamhail ó
fhiadhaile, dá mbadh é cás
Fódla féin é, dar le
Seathrún Céitinn:



“Fá dheoidh gur fhás a lán de'n
chogal tríotha.”



Níor bh'iongnadh dá
mbailightí meitheal mhaith
dhíobh súd — meitheal gan
truaighe leis — agus cor-
ráin an ghlanta 'na láimh


L. xii


aca, ar chuma nach fágfaidhe
éan-rud míostuamdha gan
gearradh gan glanadh. Go
dtí an lá sain is dócha go
ndéanfaidh an leabhar so
an gnó, má's olc maith é.



Ár rádh fá dheoidh: Ní
faghtar saoi gan locht, a
n-abair eagna ár sean
agus ár sinsear, agus ní
taise do'n rud so idir
lámhaibh againn. Dá
bhféadfaimís feabhas, nó,
mo dhearmad, ruidín beag
de chraoibh an aonaigh do
chur air, is sinn féin do
chuirfeadh agus míle fáilte.
Ó thárla nach beirtear an
chraobh i n-aisgidh gach éan-
uair, caithfimíd géilleadh
dár mbacaighe féin, má
cailleadh an taca so í.
Glór de ghlórthaibh carad
dam, d'éist an chló d'fheic-
rint dó, “An té 'n-ar
mhaith leis bárr do chur air,
cuireadh.”



Seosamh Laoide.


L. 1


AN AIBCHIDIR DHÉIDHEANACH.



AN CHÉAD LÉIGHEANN.



Eagar, Anmanna agus
Canamhain na hAibchidre
i láthair i bhfeidhm.



Figure, name, Pronounciation.



A a, Ailm, aw, the fir-tree



B b, Beith, beh, the birch tree



C c, Coll, k, the hazel-tree



D d, Dair, deh, the oak-tree



E e, Eadha, e French, the aspen-tree



F f, Fearn, f, the alder-tree



G g, Gort, y gamma, Gr, the ivy-plant



I i, Iogha, i French, the yew-tree



L l, Luis, l, quickset-tree



M m, Muin, m, the vine-plant



N n, Nuin, n, the ash-tree



O o, Oir, o, the broom-tree



P p, Peith, peh, the dwarf-elder



R r, Ruis, r the elder-tree



S s, Sail, sh, the willow-tree



T t, Teine, teh, the furze-shrub



U u, Ur, oo English, the heath-shrub



H h, Uath, h, the white-thorn



Mar aon leis na hocht
litreachaibh dhéag thuas,
sgríobh na sinsir iad so
síos: -



Qq, q, ceirt, the apple-tree



Zz, sd, sdraif, the black-thorn



Ng, ng, ngiadal, the reed-stalk



Ea, ea, eabhadh, the aspen-tree



Io, io, ifin, gooseberry-tree



Oi, oi, óir, the spindle-tree



Y, ui, uilleann, the honeysuckle



Ao, ao, amhancholl, from amhainn, a
river, and coll, the hazel-tree, of which were made
hurdles for crossing brooks and rivers (the letter x.)


L. 2


An saothar so, maille le hoibreachaibh eile, le Tadhg
O Coinnialláin ón gCorcaigh bhig i bhfairche Chille
Allaidh i nÉirinn; chum maitheas agus sochar lucht a thíre,
amuigh 's i mbaile, le n-a dteanga mhín bhinn mhilis
mháthardha a mhúnadh dhá chéile, &c.



AN AIBCHIDIR GHAEDHEALACH.



AN CHÉAD LÉIGHEANN.



Cinnlitre.
A B C D E F G
I L M N O P R
S T U H



Minlitre.
a b c d e f g
i l m n o p r
s t u h



Consonaidhe.
L M N R B
C D F H P
S T G



l m n r b c d f
h p s t g



Gothaidhe gearra is fada.
a o u e i, á ó ú é í



Gothaidhe caola is leathna.
i e, a o u



II. LÉIGHEANN.



Clár na gConsanaidhe Séimhidhe agus na nUrdhubhadh.


L. 3


AN OGAM CHRAOBH ANNSO SÍOS.



Sgríobh na draoithe i n-ogham chraobh
A n-intleacht ghrinn, ar shlait gach taobh;
Trasna, díreach, cruinn, is claon,
Gach graf dá bhfuil indiu le feidhm.



Beith 'na haonar dom' láimh dheis;
Agus Luis dís gan eisleis.
Fearn triúr, Sail ceathrar is eadh,
Agus Nuin go n-a cúigear.
Uath 'na haonar dom' láimh chlí,
Agus Dair dís go ndeigh-ní.
Teine triúr, ceathrar do Choll;
Ceirt 'na cúigear ní chealam.
Muin fiar-tharsna — mór an modh;
Dís do Ghort, triúr do Ngiadal.
Straif 'na ceathrar gan doilghe;
Ruis 'na cúigear comhshuidhthe.
Ailm 'na haonar tarsna anuas,
Agus Onn dís go ndeagh-chnuas.
Ur triúr, Eadha ceathrar cain,
Is Iogha cúigear d' fheadhain.
Eabhadh 'na crois um an gcraoibh,
Óir 'na buaile bhuig bhláthchaoin.
Uilleann 'na lúib dom' leath dheas,
Mar thuig ughdair is oircheas.
Ceithre fleasg i n-Ifin árd
Dom' leith dheis bhaineas gach bárd.
A hocht Amhancholl ma le
Do leathtaoibh chlé na craoibhe.
Curthar Peith, ar do láimh dheis,
Sínte díreach leis an bhfleisg.



OGHAM


L. 4



L. 5


ÓIRLÉAGHADH.



TRÁCHT AR NA LITRIBH.



Foillsigheann an t-Oirléa-
ghadh gné is brígh na litreacha,
agus an fíor-mhodh ceart lé'
gcurthar na focla i n-eagar.



Is graf gach litir ionad-
as fuaim iomlán, is í an
phríomh nó an mhír is lugha
d'fhocal. San Teanga
Ghaedhilge is ceithre litre
fichead bhí ag na sinsear-
aibh, a laghduigheadh go dtí
na hocht gcinn déag so síos
go déidheanach: .i., a, b, c,
d, e, f, g, i, l, m, n, o, p,
r, s, t, u, is h, atá roinnte
i n-a dhá gcinéal: eadhon,
gothaidhe agus comhfhuaimne.



Táid cúig gothaidhe: .i.,
a, e, i, o, u, athroinnte i
n-a dhá gcinéal, caol is
leathan: a, o, u, leathan;
e is i, caol. Sgríobhthar gach
aicme dhíobh so ar son a
chéile, trá bhíd gan trasnach
nó síneadh fada; ch, gh, dh,
th, mar an gcéadna; acht is
ughdair mhío-stuama ghnídh-
eas so.



Táid dhá chomhfhuaim dhéag
ann, athroinnte i malarta-
chaibh is i seasmhachaibh: .i.
b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, is t,
na malartacha; l, n, is r,
na seasmhacha.



Is litir goth a ghnídheas
son iomlán ann féin, agá


L. 6


mbíd trí guthaidhe: .i., fada,
gearr nó éideimhin, is meadh-
ónach. An chéad ghuth bhaineas
do gach goth a síntear,
ar uairibh le n-a n-eidir-
dhealughadh ó fhoclaibh eile
cóimhionann sgríobhtha, acht
neamhionann i mbrígh is i
gcanamhain.



Is le trasnach nó síneadh
fada os a gcionn, eidir-
dhealuighthear na gothaidhe
fada ó na cinn ghearra: .i.,
á, ál, é, ér, í, ídh, ó, ómh, úd,
is úth; áp, ár, ás; ég, én;
ím, ír; ól, ón, ór, úr: bá,
fá, lá; gé, lé, mé; bí, lí,
rí; bó, ló; bú, cú, tú:
bád, cád; bés, cél; bís,
dís; bórd, brón, crón, rón;
cúl, drúth. Is den dara
cinéal na cinn ghearra nó
éideimhne: .i. ab, eb, ic, ob,
oc, uc, ut; ga, dath, bac;
del, mel; dris; dos, cos;
dul, mul; ba, cath, de, di,
do, loc, muc, suc; cat, gad,
fad, cor, gor, cel, cin, col,
cul. Is den chinéal mheadó-
nach an treas: .i., dall,
mall, benn, menn, cinn,
minn, borr, corr, bunn,
funn.



Is annamh fághthar go-
thaidhe sgríobhtha dúbalta:
.i., aa, ee, ii, oo, uu, acht
amháin i meamruim: .i.,
baan, baain, baath, silsaan;
easbogbaa: níl gothaidhe
maon i ndeireadh focal,


L. 7


acht go coitcheann fada;
cuid gearr: .i., ba, ga,
barra, file, de, do, mo,
duile is deirli.



Mar atá i n-eagar cóimh-
fhreagrach canamhna na
ngothaidhe is na gcomh-
fhuaimne, is fogus d'fhuaim
na litreacha Sacs shonann
ár litre i n-a bpríomh-
ndeilbh neamhfhada neimh-
shéimhidhe.



Meastar le dream nach
bhfuil níos mo ná comharta
na hanála amháin san litir
h, agus go dtig le goin a fheidhm
a fhreagairt (.), imne, bh, ch,
dh, &c. Chuir dream eile go
déidheanach as a saothar go
hiomlán é, acht níl sin ionchos-
anta. I dtaobh duar mbain-
inscneacha, nocha thosuigheas
le goth, trá théigheas le nó a
rompa, is éigin h a shonadh
chomh teann leis an h Shac-
sanach ins na foclaibh, have,
hall, &c. .i., a haghaidh, a
hairgead, a huair, le hOs-
ruidhibh, le hUltaibh: acht ar
mhodhaibh eile ní sgríobhthar h,
muna' i ndiaidh c, g, p nó t;
dá bhrígh sin, is éigin do na
sgríbhneóiríbh mío-stuama
thairgeas a mbeag-shaothar a
chur a nGaedhilge san litir
Rómhánach bheith aireach ar
fheidhm h: óir is minic a
chuireas a dheagh-bhail an
léightheóir amugha agus is go
mór-mhór ioná sin achrann-


L. 8


as a dhroch-bhail toghadh na
saoithe.



'Sí an litir s Bainríoghan
na gComhfhuaimne, lán-
chumhachtach agus fras; “suae
potestatis litera:” trá bhíos
i dtús focail, glacaidh sí na
gothaidhe go léir, agus gach
comhfhuaim uile 'na diaidh, a
thig i láthair le n-a riocht.



CANAMHAIN NA nGOTHAIDHE IS NA gCOMHFHUAIMNE.



a fada is leathan .i. fás, growth, like a in call



a fada is caol .i. adharc, a horn, like i in fine



a gearr is leathan .i. dart, a clod, like a in rat



a gearr is teann .i. rann, a verse, like aw in fawn



a gearr is caol .i. béarla, language, like a in mineral



e fada .i. lén, woe, like e in there



e gearr is teann .i. ell, a flock, like e in egg



e gearr .i. fillte, folded, like e in ble



i fada .i. ím, butter, like i in field



i teann .i. mill, mar, like ai in hail



i gearr .i. inis, an island, like i in win



o fada .i. ór, gold, like o in stone



o gearr is teann .i. corr, a bill, like ow in owl



o gearr .i. stoc, a trumpet, like u in buck



u fada .i. úr, green, like u in sure



u gearr is teann .i. sunn, a wall. like ou in pound



u gearr .i. ucht, the breast, like u in shut



b, leathan .i. bán, white, like b in ball



c, leathan .i. cath, battle, like c in call



c, caol .i. ceann, a head, like c in care



d, leathan .i. dán, song, like th in thorough



d, caol .i. déirc, alms, like d in guardian



f, gearr .i. fáil, a ring, like f in fat



f, leathan .i. fúinn, under us, like f in fall


L. 9


g, leathan .i. gad, withe, like g in gall



g, caol .i. geinte, born, like g in give



l, fada .i. lá, a day, like l in law



l, gearr .i. leac, a stone, like l in last



m, leathan .i. moch, early, like m in mother



m, gearr .i. muin, back, like m in mat



n, leathan .i. carn, a heap, like n in horn



n, caol .i. neart, strength, like n in news



p, leathan .i. páiste, a child, like p in pawn



r, fada .i. ramh, an action, like r in rood



r, fada .i. réim, a course, like r in clarion



s, leathan .i. solás, comfort, like s in son



s, caol .i. searc, love, like sh in shine



t, leathan .i. tonn, wave, like th in thumb



t, caol .i. tinn, sick, like t in tube



CANAMHNA NA nDEAGHFHOGHRACHA IS NA dTREAGH-
FHOGHRACHA.



ae, síor-fhada bae, a man, a person, like ay in say, day



ai, fada: .i. fáidh, a prophet, seer, like oy in boy, toy



ai, gearr: .i. aingeal, angel, light, like i in king, ring



ao, síorfh.: .i. saor, cheap; daor, dear; like ee in deer, reel



aoi, síorfh.: .i. saoir, carpenters, wits, like ea in fear, ear



éa, fada: .i. sméar, grease, tallow, like a in came, dame



ea, gearr: .i. neart, strength; ceart, legal justice, like a in art, smart



ea, gearr: .i. beag, little, like e in leg, ledge



eadh, fada: .i. síneadh, stretching out, like ew in new, pew



ei, fada: .i. léir. all; déirc, alms; like ei in feign, mein



ei, gearr: .i. reic, sell; ceil, deny; like e in egg, melted



eo, fada: .i. ceól, a song; seól, loom; like eo in yeomanry



eo, fada: .i. eolus, science, learning, like o in mole, hole



eo, gearr: .i. deoch, drink; eoch, grief; like ou in coughing



eói, síorfh.: .i. fe-óil, flesh; be-óir, ale; as if in two syllables



éa, síorfh.: .i. féach, behold, as fé-ach; as if in two syllables



éa, síorfh.: .i. méar, a finger; féar, grass; like ay in may, lay


L. 10


ia, síorfh.: .i. grian, the sun; like ie in rampiers



iai, síorfh.: .i. iair-fhéar, aftergrass; like ai in gain, pain



ío, fada: .i. fíon, wine; fíor, truth; like ee in keen, spleen



io, gearr: .i. biolar, water-cresses, like i in kill, spilling



iú, fada: .i. ciúmhas, edge; giús, fir; like u in fume, glue



iu, gearr: .i. fliuch, wet; tiugh; gross; like u in but, hurt



iúi, síorfh.: .i. ciúin, meek; siú-ir, sister or kinswomen; as if in two syallables like ue in fuel, duel



ói, fada: .i. cóir, just; fóir, help; like o in ore, poring



oi, gearr: .i. oide, a schoolmaster, like ea in threading



oi, gearr: .i. toil, will; oil, nourish; like oi in hoist, coif



ói, fada: .i. róinte, seals; móinte, bogs; like o in owe, rows



oi, fada: .i. croidhe, the heart; like ee in bee, feeing



ua, síorfh.: .i. fu ar, cold; dual, plait; like oo in poor, door



úi, fada: .i. sú-il, eye; dúil, desire, or wish; as if in two syllables



ui, fada: .i. buidhe, yellow, like uee in queen



ui, gearr: .i. fuil, blood; cuil, a fly; like ui in quilt, guilt



uai, síorf.: .i. du-ain, poems, songs, as if in two syllables



De na Gothaidhibh, Deaghfhoghraibh is na Treaghfhoghraibh
annso síos.*



Ceithre hamhanchoill ríomhthar ann,
Cúig heabhadha fós go coitcheann,
Cúig ifine muin ar mhuin,
Trí huilleanna, is óir 'na haonar.
e, i dtús gach eabhadh áin,
i, i dtús gach ifin iomláin,
u, i dtús gach uillinn uill,
a, i dtús gach amhanchoill.



AMHANCHOILL
ar
ao, saor, maor, déan fada do shíor,
aoi, saoir, maoir, déan fada amhlaidhe,
ae, lae, nae, rae, déan fada dá réir,
ai, fáidh, sáimh fada: fail, sail gearr,



*Amhancholl, aphthong; eabhadh, ephthong; ifin, iphthong; uilleann,
uphthong; óir 'na haonar, one ophthong only (óir). See English sec-
tion following. — Ed.


L. 11


EABHADHA



Ar



ea, tréas, tréan fada, bean, geal gearr,
éa, béal, sgéal, néal, fada is gnáth,
eo, seól, ceól fada, deoch, eoch gearr,
eói, feóil, beóir, seóil, fada is fearr,
ei, féil, béil, déan fada go léir,
acht, geir, leis, speir, gearr is fearr,



IFINE



Ar



ia, Dia, ciall, fial, fada do shíor,
iai, fiaidh, biaidh, diaidh, fada amhlaidhe,
iu, siúr, triúr fada, fliuch, déan gearr,
iúi, ciúin, siúir, déan fada go bráth,
ío, fíon, cíor, déan fada le fíor,
acht crios, fios, lios, gearr is fearr,



ÓIR 'NA HAONAR
UILLEANNA



Ar



ua, cuan, suan, uan, fada go buan,
uai, cuain, suain, uain, fada is gnáth,
ui, dúil, súil déan fada lé dúis,
acht cuil, fuil, suil, gearr is fearr,



oi, glóir, cóir déan fada lé fóir,
acht coir, goir, is 'noir déan gearr.



a
á, déan fada i lá 's i n-ár



e
é, déan fada i ngé 's i ngné,



i
í, déan fada i ní 's i dtrí



o
ó, déan fada i ndó 's i n-ór,



u
ú, déan fada i n-úr 's i rún,



's gach goth fada sín go ciúin:



a
a, déan gearr i nga do ghnáth:



e
e, déan gearr i dte go bráth



i
i, déan gearr i slis do shíor;



o
o, déan gearr i ndos amhlaidhe,



u
u, déan gearr i n-uch 's i ndul
's gach deach ghearr na sín a goth.



Bíonn goth i ndeireadh focail go coitcheann fada .i. fá,
lé, is ré, lí, ló, crú, tú; cuid eile gearr .i. ba, de, di,
do, is file



OF THE VOWELS, DIPTHONGS, AND TRIPHTHONGS.



The dipthongs and triphthongs, or union of two or
three vowels, are eighteen; those beginning with a, are
called aphthongs; with e, ephthongs; with i, iphthongs;
and with u, uphthongs; ten of which are always long;


L. 12


viz., ae, ao, aoi, ea, eó, eói, ia, i ai, ua, and u ai; as lae,
of a day; n ae, man, or woman; rae, the moon; saor,
a mason; maor, a serjeant; saoir, mason s; maoir,
serjeants; fáidh, a prophet; sáimh, mild; béal, a mouth;
sgéal, a story; néal, a cloud; feóil, flesh; beóir,
ale; seóid, a fairing; Dia, God; ciall, sense; fial,
free; fiadh, deer; biaidh, will be; diaidh, after; ciúin,
quiet or mild; siúir, kinswomen; stiúir. a helm; cuan,
a harbour; suan, sleep; uan, a lamb. The other
diphthongs, and all the vowels, are sometimes long, and
sometimes short; viz., á is long in lá, a day; as lá
an Luain, the day of judgment, i.e., the day of the
Lamb: é is long in gé, a goose; í, long in mí, a
month; ó, long in mó, greater; and ú, long in tú,
thou: a is short in ga, a dart; e, short in te, hot;
i, short in slis, a wash-staff; o, short in dos, a bush;
and u, short in dul, a snare; ái is long in cáil, quality;
éa, long in céacht, a plough; éi, long in féil, a feast;
eó, long in ceól, music; and ío, long in cíor, a comb;
ai is short in sail, a beam; ea, short in bean, a woman;
ei, short in geir, fat; eo, short in deoch, a drink; io,
short in mion, small; and iu, short in fliuch, wet. —
Note, words ending in vowels are, for the most part,
made long, as, fá, lé and ré, lí, ló, crú, tú; few excepted,
viz., ba, de, di, do, and file.



Clár na nDeaghfhoghracha is
na dTreaghfhoghracha.



Do bhrígh go bhfuil cúig deagh-
fhoghracha, agus na treagh-
fhoghracha uile, do shíor
fada, is féidir a sgríobh-
adh le trasnach no síneadh
fada, nó gan comharthadh
ar bith, má's áil; .i.



aol, lime



aodh, fire



baoth, wild



caol, slender



draoi, druid



ae, the liver



dae, a man



faeth, smile



beoir, ale



feoil, flesh



feoir, witty



geoin, noise



neoin, even



seoid, gem



teoir, three


L. 13


éad, zeal



béal, mouth



céad, first



déad, teeth



féar, grass



géar, sharp



iath, country



diaidh, end



fiair, lay



mian, wish



siall, a cell



siar, behind



tiach, bag



ciuin, mild



giuis, fir-tree



siuir, sisters



ua, grandson



bruach, edge



buan, still



cuach, bowl



cuan, shore



dual, plait



fuar, cold



guag, giddy



gual, coals



luam, a prior



luan, the moon



nuall, shout



suan, sleep



suas, up



suaith, rub, mix



tuagh, an axe



tuath, the north



cuan, litter



cuairt, visit



duair, words



duairc, surly



duais, prize



fuaid, residue



fuair, found



fuaim, noise



guail, fire



guais, danger



luaith, ashes



muaidh, cloud



nuair, when



ruaim, a line



suaill, small



suaim, tone



Suain, Sweden



suairc, merry



truaill, sheath



uain, time



buair, of cattle



Táid so síos comharthuighthe
lé trasnach nó síneadh
nó síneadh fada, chum
sócamhail don léightheóir.



aedh, eye



aer, sky



aos, age



baoth, silly



lae, day



nae, man or woman



rae, moon



staon, stoop



aoibh, pleasure



aois, age



aol, lime



baois, folly



caoch, blind



caol, small



caor, fruit



daor, costly



aol, wild



faon, void



gaol, love



laom, blaze



maol, bald



maor, baron



naomh, saint



raon, trick



saor, mason



sgaoll, flight



slaod, float, raft



sraobh, tract



taom, a fit



caoi, weeping



craoibh, bough



daoir, slaves



draoi, seer



faoil, wolves



gaoil, friends



gaois, art



laoi, poem



laoidh, lay



maoil, a heap



naoi, nine



paoir, peers



raoin, plains



saoir, tradesmen,
artists



taoibh, sides



béal, mouth



céad, cent



déad, teeth


L. 14


féad, skill



féach, behold



féan, wagon



féar, grass



géar, sour



méar, toe



néall, cloud



réal, sixpence



réam, humour



séan, happiness,
luck



téad, cord



tréad, flock



beóir, ale



beóil, holes



ceóil, songs



deóin, consent



eóin, birds



feóil, flesh



feóir, borders



geóis, fat belly



leóin, moths



neóid, scanty



preóil, parrot



reóidh, frosty



seóid, jewels



sgeóin, a great
noise, host



seóil, looms



teóir, limits



ciall, sense



ciar, black



dias, two



fial, kind



giall, jaw



iasg, fish



liach, ladle



liag, stone



liath, grey



mian, will



mias, dish



pian, pain



rian, path



riar, lord



sial, basin



sgian, knife



srian, bridle



tias, oar



biaidh, it will be



biail, an axe



cliair, poets



fiail, ferrets



miain, wishes



niaidh, heroes



riaidh, races



triaill, marches,
schemes



buan, still



cuan, shore



dual, plait



fuar, cold



fuath, envy



gual, coal



gruag, hair



luan, veal



ruar, tour



scuad, flock



sguab, sweep



sluagh, host



sruan, frame



stuadh, gable



suan, sleep



tuagh, an axe



uan, a lamb



buail, stair



cruaidh, hard



cuairt, visit



duadh, evil



duail, office



fuair, he found



gruaidh, cheek



gruaim, frown



luaith, ashes



'nuair, when



ruaim, a line



suaill, small



tuaim, tumulus



briúin, pans



ciúin, mild



giúis, fir-tree



gliúimh, of glue



siúir, sisters



stiúir, helm



X. LEIGHEANN.



áit, a place



báis, of death



bláith, fruits



cáil, greens



cáin, a curse



cláir, tables



cráig, a fist



dáin, poems



fáil, fences



fáis, growths



fáisg, press



gáid, a sire



gráig. a town



gáir, cry, bellow



láir, mare


L. 15


naing, foster-
mother



páirc, enclosure



páis, passion



ráin, a spade



ráith, a fort



sáill, fatness



sáith, thrust



scáil, shade



sgáin, split



sáil, salt



spáig, flat foot



sráid, a street



stráill, pluck



táim, I am



táir, vile, bad



béas, mien



béal, the sun



bréag, error



céad, first



céas, a cross



déag, teen



féach, behold



géag, a bough



Gréag, Greece



léas, sight, spot



méad, bulk



néall, a cloud



réab, tear



séan, deny



tréan, strong



béic, a shout



béim, a stock



bléin, groin



céin, far off



céis, sow, pig



cléir, clergy



déirc, alms



d'éis, after



dréim, hope



féil, feast



géim lowing



géis, a swan



gréis, fringe



léir, totally



méid, amount



méin, ore, mild



néill, clouds



réir, last night



sgéin, dread



téigh, go thou



beó, alive



ceól, music



deódh, end



eól, skill



bíodh, though



diúl, suck



fiú, worth



gliúmh, glue



liúgh, short



siúr, cousin



triúr, three



triús, trowsers



XI. LEIGHEANN.



ait, pleasant



bais, the palm of
the hand



cait, cats



faic, spark



fair, watch



flaith, lord



gail, heat, hot



grainc, a frown



laith, ale, beer



lainn, blades



mair, live, still



mairc, sore spot



naisg, of a ring



pait, a hare



pailt, enough



raibh, was, were



sail, a beam



sgairt, the lungs



straid, a sot



sraith, tax



tais, wet



tairp, gross



bean, woman



beach, bee



breac, trout



cead, leave



dearc, look



feac, bend



fear, man



geal, white



gean, love



gread, stroke



leas, profit



mear, stout



nead, nest



reac, selling



sean, old



teas, heat



beir, take



beirt, two



ceirt, rag



ceis, basket



creid, trust



deis, south



feis, sleep



geir, fat



leirg, tract


L. 16


meilt, grind



neid, nests



seir, heel



teirt, sun-rise



deoch, a drink



eoch, a sigh



diuc, the pip



diur, hard



fiuch, boil



fliuch, wet



sprius, a dry bush,
faggots



siurt, vagrant



tiugh, thick, big



triuch cough



XII. LEIGHEANN.



bíodh, let it be



cíor, comb



críoch, end



Críost, the Sa-
viour of man



díol, pay



fíon, wine



gíog, squeak



gríobh, griffin



líon, fill



píob, pipe



síor, always



cúil, recess



cúig, five



cúis, cause



dúil, desire



dúis, crow



múin, teach



plúir, of flour



rúisg, smite



súil, eye, hope



súist, flail



túis, incense



boill, limbs



Bóinn, the Boyne



bróin, of woe



coill, wood



cóir, law, just



cróin, crown



dóigh, hope



dóith, burn



fóil, a while



lóin, stores



móin, turf



móid, vow



nóin, the evening



óir, of gold



póir, seeds



róis, rose



stróic, a line



tóir, pursuit



dóigh, opinion



XIII. LEIGHEANN.



bior, a spear



bioth, life



cion, love



ciot, left-hand



crios, band



criot, jug



díosg, barm



fios, art, wit



giob, tail, end



giolc, reed



gion, desire



lios, fort



mion, small



níor, not



bruid, grief



bruis, a brush



bruit, curtains



bruith, flesh, bake,
boil



buic, he-goats



builg, bellows, sick-
ness, seeds



cluig, bells



cluin, hear, listen



cruit, harp, or
hump



cuid, share, a part



cuil, gnat, a fly



cuilc, reed



cuin, when,



hounds, dogs



cuir, put, set



cuirp, bodies



cuirt, apple-tree,
bark



bruid, shut, fasten



duirc, knife



dúis, strange



duit, to thee


L. 17


fuil, blood



fuilt, hairs



fuin, knead



fuir, stay



gluig, noise



gruid, malt



gruin, hedgehog,
porcupine



guid, steal



guidh, pray



guil, weep



guin, points, sting,
a stop



luid, a rag



luin, blackbirds



luis, hands, herbs,



quicken-tree, a
drink (l)



muin, the back



muir, the sea



muirt, wealth



nuid, of a note



puic, roebucks



pluid a blanket



puirt, tunes, ports,



commons, quays



pluit, of a gap



ruic, a fleece



cuir, cease



sluig, swallow



smuit, beak



spuir, spurs, gun-
flints



spuit, blots



suidh, fix, rest



suil, before, the
willow



suim, respect



truid, starling



tuig, discern



tuir, tower



tuis, guess, hit
upon.



tuit, fall



bloic, block



boicht, the poor



boin, cow



coir, fault



cois, near



croich, a cross, a
gallows



doich, soon, early



droich, a dwarf



goic, pride



goid, theft



goin, hint, a period,
section



goir, call



goirt, sharp, salt,
sour



groigh, stud of
horses, mares



loit, wound
oil, nourish



poinc, points



soir, easterly



stoic, stocks



toic, riches



toil, will, wish



toirt, bulk



troigh, foot



troid, a fight



AR LITRIBH DÚBALTA.



Ní cóir goth ná comhfhuaim
a sgríobhadh fa dhó, acht l, n
is r, nocha sonann do shíor
go teann, i meadhon is i
ndeireadh focal: gidh son-
ann l, n is r, amhail a mbeith
dúbalta i dtús focal
bhaineas don bhaininsgne, agus
do naethibh nó do nidhthibh san
uimhir iolraidh: .i., a llámh, a
nnáire, a nneart, a rréim;
a lleabhra, a lleastar.


L. 18


Sonann l, r is n, trá
leanas s ins an tsiolla
chéadna, go teann amhail a
mbeith dúbalta: .i., sliabh,
srian agus sníomh; mar
slliabh, srrian, snníomh léigh-
tear iad: ní bhfuilid séi-
mhidhe.



Acht trá thig dhá chomh-
fhuaim i n-éinfheacht i n-a
bhfocal cumaisgthe, cong-
bhaighid a gcéad tson: .i.,
léightear braittirm, agus
sgríobhthar do ghnáth brait-
irm.



Cuirtear nd go minic
air son nn, .i., ceand i
n-áit ceann.



Is cóir an fhuaim a
gnídheas an litir dá ngoir-
tear ngiadal (ng), is le n-a
clos o thíorthach (má's féidir)
is fearr a foghluim.



Cuirtear d agus l, trá
théid roimh n, i n agus l eile;
amhail a sgríobhthar ‘na
colna céadna’ ar son ‘na
colla céanna.’



Gidh meastar nach ndúb-
luighthear éan-chomhfhuaim
acht amháin l, n is r; agus
sin i meadhon agus i
ndeireadh focal, dearbhuigh-
thear dhúinn gur féidir na
comhfhuaimne-se síos a dhúb-
lughadh; .i., c, f, p agus t;
agus fós m agus s, do réir
mar sgríobhann lucht an
tsaoghail mheadhonaigh: is i
dtosach focal curthar iad,


L. 19


acht cc amháin, fághthar i
ndeireadh fuidhire; .i., dricc,
sonann cc mar g; ff mar bh;
pp mar b, agus tt mar d;
meastar le dream eile,
gur bh'fhearr súd a chur
imeasg na gcomhfhuaimne
atá urdhubhtha, agus i n-ionad
cc, gc a chur; ar son ff,
bhf a chur; i n-áit pp, bp a
rádh; agus tt, a thabhairt air
dt. Ní shonann l, n ná r,
dúbalta i dtús éan-tládh-
fhocail.



I measg na gcomhfhuaim-
ne atá séimhidhe, urdhubhtha,
bactha no múchta, atá m
amháin saor. Ní urdhubhthar
s, muna dtéidhidh an t-alt
an róimhe, agus l, n nó r
'na dhiaidh; .i., an tsrón, an
tslat, an tsneadh, an tsais,
an tsamhfhuin.



Trá ghníthear tládhfhocal
de lánfhocal a chríochnuigh-
eas i n-a ll nó nn, caill-
eann sé an litir dhéidheanach;
.i., aibhleach, ó abhall; aibh-
neach, ó abhainn.



aill, cliff



ann, there, in him



ball, spot, member



bann, deed, law



barr, end, crop,
son



call, damage, loss



cann, a vessel,
full moon



carr, a spear



ciorrbh, tear,
mangle



coll, hazel



conn, reason



corr, a crane



curr, end, corner



dall, blind, dark



deann, dust



dionn, a hill



donn, brown



dorr, harsh



dúinn, to us



earr, tail



fann, folly, infirm



faill, leisure



feall, treason,
deceit



feann, flay, strip



fearr, better



fiann, soldier, hero


L. 20


fill, fold, return



fionn, white



flann, blood



fúinn, under us



fonn, song, plea-
sure



fuin, the west, end



gann, scarce



gearr, short, a weir



géill, jaws



geinn, a wedge, pin



giall, jaw



gioll, pledge, host-
age



gleann, dale, valley



glinn, light, sky



glonn, calf, qualm



greann, love, col-
our



grinn, neat, wise



iarr, ask, seek, pray



inn, we, us



iarr, end, conclus-
ion



lann, blade, fin



linn, pool



lonn, anger, bold



mall, slow, lately



meall, globe, hill



meann, clear, mute



meill, clack of a
mill



mill, spoil, ruin,
mar



mionn, a holy relic



miorr, myrrh, gum



oll, great, grand



peall, skin, veil



peann, writing-
pen



poll, a poll of land



pronn, pollard



rill, riddle, sift



rinn, promontory



raill, fat, pickle



sginn, rush, bounce



slinn, weaver's sley



spall, beat, strike



srann, hum, snort



stiall, rag, piece
of cloth



thall, over



tarr, extremity,
end



teann, stiff, hard



tearr, pitch, tar



till, turn, revert



tinn, sick, infirm



tonn, wave, quick



reann, field or
park



triall, march,
journey



truill, tray, vessel



tuill, merit, earn



uainn, from us



urraim, honour,
respect



Aille, praise, fair



aillse, canker, sore



ballán, churn, tub,
teat, broom, shell



ballnasg, tie, li-
gament, fasten



ballóg, shell, scull



bille, rag, fool,
small trunk, boss



bolla, goblet, ball



bollóg, bullock,
top



breallán, darnel
grass



brollach, preface,
the breast



buallacht, herd of
cows



bulla, bowl, edict,
a decree



bullach, connor fish



call, tame, veil



callóid, callán,
call, shout, noise



callain, callainn,
calends, first day
of every month



cillín, a little cell



coilleog, a large
cockle, shell-fish



collach, boar, hei-
fer, corpulence



codladh, sleep, rest



cuallach, herding
cattle, deer



cuallacht, an as-
sembly



cuille, black cloth



dalladh, blindness



dallma, delay, stop



dallóg, a leech



deallas, zeal,
hurry



diallóg, a bat



diallaid, saddle



dille, a dill



dubhshlán, to chall-
enge, accuse



eallach, cattle,
battle


L. 21


eallamh, a wonder,
a herd



fallaing, mantle,
a cloak



fallnós, misinter-
pretation, wrong
interpretation



feillbheart, a vile
deed



filléad, plaid



follach, gruel, food
made of oatmeal
boiled in water



follas, plain, pub-
lic, open, common



folracht, blood, a
gore



fuill amh, reward,
gain, pay



gallaoil, soap



gealladh, promise,
vow



gealltholl, a horse-
leech



géilleadh, submis-
sion



giolla, servant boy



greallach, clay, dirt



grullán, a cricket



iallach, a thong



iollan, clever, ex-
pert, apt



mallacht, curse,
modesty



meallach, fat,
lumpy



meallóg, the milt
of a fish



milleán, blame,
reproach



mothlach, shaggy



mullach, top, a hill



néallach, cloudy



oillthéad, a cable



ollthuath, battle-axe



pullóg, pollock,
pantry



rollán, a cylinder



sallan, harmony



teallach, a hearth



uallach, vain, silly



Aindeis, need,
want



annsacht, love, like



bannaomh, a female
saint, holy woman



bannlámh, a cubit



bannshorn, a gridle,
a bake-stone



beannach, horned



beannán, little hill



beannóg, coif, cap



binneán, a bell



boinne, a drop



bonnán, a bittern



bonnóg, a leap



brannra, a prop



brannrach, a fold



bronnag, gudgeon



buannacht, profit



bunnós, custom



bunntais, profit



cainneal, cinna-
mon



ceanna, a can, moth



cannach, myrtle



cannrán, mutter-
ing



caonnóg, bees' nest



ceannach, reward



ceannaire, a driver



ceannart, a chief



ceannbhrat, canopy



ceannrach, halter



ceanntar, world,
life



clannach, bushy



coinnlín, stubble



coinneal, a candle



connadh, fuel



connail, prudent



connlann, a hero



connlacht, wisdom



cranndolbh, lottery



cruinne, a globe



cuanna, neat, hill



cúinne, a corner



cuinneog, a churn



cuinnse, face,
quince



cúnnach, moss



deannal, hurry



dionnán, a hill



donnóg, kind of
fish



Donnchadh, Denis



dreannach, speedy



fannlag, weak



fiannach, a giant



finnín, a small bird



fionnadh, hair, fur



fionnóg, crow



fonnad, car, tour



fuinneog, a win-
dow



gainne, want, reed



gannail, lattices



geinneog, pundle


L. 22


gleannán, a defile



goinneach, greedy



goinneog, a fang



gráinne, a grain



greannchluith, co-
medy



greannmhar, affable



grinniol, a channel



gunna, a firelock



innbhear, a pasture



inneach, woof or
weft



inneall, a process



inneóin, anvil, hero



inneal, gin, snare



innilt, handmaid



inniún, an onion



innlis, a candle



innsgin, a gender



innte, a kernel



innteach, a gate



intinn, the mind



ionnraic, honest



ionnrosg, word



ionntlás, delight



lainneach, corus-
cant



laidneóir, latinist



lannar, radiance



lannóir, a cow



lanntaoir, parti-
tion



lannrach, a flame



lanngán, a lowing



leannán, sweet-
heart



leanndubh, grief
woe



linnseog, shroud



lonnrach, a blaze



luinne, anger, ire



luinneac, music



mainnis, trifling



mannar, evil,
naught



meannán, young
kid



meannad, a room



méannracht, bliss



minneach, falsehood



minnseog, she-
goat



mionnán, a kid



mionna, oath, a
vow



mionnrann, a short
verse



neannaidh, nettle



onnchu, a leopard



onnchon, standard,
ensign



panna, pan



pannal, crew, band



peannas, peann-
aid, pain, sore,
hurt



peinnear, pen-case



pinne, pineadh, a
pin



pinnear, an ink-
horn



pionnsa, wile, art



prionnsa, prince



rannóir, divisor



rannpháirt, ali-
mony



ranntas, poetry



reanna, stars



rinneach, grass,
barbed



rinneog, star



rionnach, mackerel



rionnag, a comet



rionnaidhe, carver



rionnal, sculpture



ronnach, dirty



ronna, staff, club



ronnaire, sove-
reign



runnadh, a division



scannail, a slander



scannán, mem-
brane



seannós, old cus-
tom



seinne, older, fright



sgannradh, disper-
sion



sinne, clan, teat



sinnsear, ancestor



sinneach, a wen, fox



sionnach, fox



sionnadh, reproof



sionnsa, censor



sonnach, a castle



sonnadh, strife



sonnta, bold, merry



sonnrach, special



sprunnán, offal



srannán, hoarse-
ness



srannart, snort-
ing



tannaidh, woof



teannadh, stiffness



teannas, austerity



teannrad, dis-
covery



teanntán, a press



teann-croidhe, grief


L. 23


tearmonn, glebe



teinnteach, light-
ning



tinneas, sickness



tinnire, heavy load



tinnmhe, an onset



tinnreamh, service



teinnteán, hearth



teinnteog, sala-
mander



Arra, treachery



arrach, dwarf, cen-
taur, likeness



arroid, vice, evil



barra, bar, spike



barrach, tow, tops



barradh, hindrance



barróg, a knot, a
young girl,
weeds



bearradh, shaving,
shred, clipped



biorra, Birr, plain,
strong, watery



borradh, swelling



borrfhadh, anger



burrais, caterpil-
lar



carrán, hook



carra, bran, scald



carraic, a rock



cearrbhach, gambler



corr-ghlas, a heron



corrlach, overplus



currach, bog, cap



diorruisg, rashness



dorrach, harsh



dorrán, anger



durróg, a maggot



earrach, spring sea-
son



earradh, dress



farradh, company,
comparison



forrach, pole, fish-
ing-rod, face



forrdhris, jessamin



forrán, tyranny



gearrach, the flux



gearradh, a tax



gearrán, a horse,
end of February



gearrghuin, a leech



gearróg, destiny



geirre, brevity



giorrach, dry heath



gorrach, foolish



iarraidh, request



narrach, peevish



orrar, a porch



Parrthas, Paradise



piorra, pear, blast



searrach, colt



searróg, a bottle



siorram, a sheriff



tarradh, a train,
duty, attendance



tarrach, horrid



tarraing, drawing,
pulling, a blow



tiorraid, a robe



torrach, pregnant



turraic, a push



urradh, surety, fur-
niture, chieftain



urras, awe, fear



TRÁCHT AR NA COMH-
FHUAIMNIBH NÓ CON -
SOINIBH.



Is graf gach comhfhuaim,
nach sontar uaithi fein, agus
nach dtig gan a bheith i n-éin-
fheacht le goth, chum fuaim
iomlán theacht uatha araon,



Táid dá comhfhuáim dhéag
ann, roinnte eidir sheasmhach-
aibh is mhalartachaibh.


L. 24


Athruighthear naoi gcinn
aca go malartachaibh, le
goin os a gcinn, nó h ré
n-a riocht; imne, mh nó mh,
le a n-athruigheann siad a
son. Is naoi a n-uimhir, .i.
bh, ch, dh, fh, gh, mh, ph, sh, agus
th; nó bh, ch, dh, fh, gh,
mh, ph, sh agus th.



'Siad na seasmhacha l, n
is r, nocha shíor-chongbhuigheas
a son.



Le linn h a chur leis
na malartachaibh-se, nó a
séimhiughadh, ghnídhthear neimh-
ionann d'á gcéad riocht iad;
ionnus gur bh'fhéidir a mbeith
'na gcabharthaidhthibh, nó 'na
n-íochtaránaighibh; atá cuid
aca comh tochtha sain 's
gur'b é a bhfeidhm a bheith
sgríobhtha, le n-a bpríomh a
chongbháil soiléir, agus gan an
focal a bheith míochumtha.



Tá canamhain gach íoch-
taránaigh comh neimhionann
sain d'á bpríomh-shon, ionnus
gur bh'fhéidir a rádh le fíogh-
airibh nó le grafaibh áirighthe,
mar is gnáth do theang-
thaibh eile, noch achrannas
fághail amach an tsanais;
dá bhrígh sin 'sé a seilbh a
chongbhuigheas an Ghaedhilge
beacht, ceart, is iomlán,
ó gach doiléirgeacht ro-
choitcheann i dteangthaibh
eile.


L. 25


TRÁCHT AR NA MALAR-
TACHAIBH. — Bh.



Sonann bh go coitcheann
mar v Sacs i dtús focail,
trá thig roimh ghoth chaol; .i.
bhíos, bhean, do bheast, do
bheartrach, nó i ndeireadh
focail ar bith; .i. searbh,
tarbh, dearbh, deirbh, doilbh:
acht trá bhíonn roimh ghoth
leathan i dtosach focail, nó
i lár focail, sonann sí
mar w, agus seal mar v;
imne, bháitheas, gabha, gabhar;
amhail a mbeith sgríobhtha
wáitheas, gawa, gawar:
gidh curthar mh go minic i
n-ionad bh, agus vice versa,
sontar an goth níos tréine
is níos airde ná iad súd
roimhe, .i. leanbh, sliabh,
slabhraidhe, amháin, cnámh,
gríobh-shrónach, domhar, do-
mhan, luath-mharc, snámhaidhe,
támhaidhe, talmhaidhe, Clochán
na bhFomharaidhe.



Ch no Ch,



Sonann ch no ch mar x
Gréagach roimh ghoth, i dtús
focail, .i. mo chos, mo
cheann, is mar xeann, xos
is éigin a léigheadh: acht i
ndeireadh focail i bhfogus
do ghoth leathan, nó i lár
focal d'ilshiollaíbh, sonann
sí go garbh, mar gh san bhfo-
cal lough; .i. each, céacht,
reachtaire, reachollach,


L. 26


tlachtbheart; má leanann
goth caol í i dtús focal, nó
'na diaidh i ndeireadh focal
cailleann sí ar an modh
soin a tlocht nó garbh-shon,
agus fuaimnighthear í le
séimheadh teann; .i. chím, chí-
fead, eich, chichis, chigh, chith,
chib, chich, chil, chiochaire, chinn-
bheartas, chischin, chionnsir, a
chruaidhe chiuchair, chiormaire,
a chiomaigh.



Dh.



Is garbh-ghuthach shonann dh
i dtús focal roimh ghoth
leathan; .i. mo dháid; níl
éan-tson san teanga Shac-
sanaigh comh cosmhail acht gh,
san bhfocal ghost; .i. dhuit
nó ghuit. Trá bhíonn i dto-
sach focail roimh ghoth chaol,
nó i lár focail le goth ar
bith, sonann sí mar y; .i.
a Dhia ghrádhaigh, dhearcas,
adharc. Sonann sí go maon
no séimhidhe i lár focail,
trá leanas comhfhuaim í;
.i. fiadh-lorga; bíonn amhlaidh
i ndiaidh deaghfhoghair: .i. a
mhadaidh. Tá sí maon i n-adh-
bhal is i bhfleadh; acht i
ndeireadh focail, i ndiaidh
ghotha leathain, sonann sí mar
u; .i. dearbhughadh, fargadh,
fasgadh, gearradh, lasadh,
madadh, múnadh, nodhadh,
rannsughadh, sásughadh, súg-
radh, táthughadh, tarchomhladh,


L. 27


tarmchruthughadh; i mbodhar,
mar bowar, noch mhalart
na Breathnaigh ar dd; .i.
byddar.



Fh.



Séimhighthear f ann gach
ionad d'á gcurthar í. Is i
dtosach focal coitcheann a
bhíonn sí, nó mar phrímh ins an
dara mír do chumaisgeach-
aibh, i n-a sontar go teann
í; .i. an fhuil, comhfhuil, is
mar a nuil, comhuil sontar
iad. Is cosmhail ó chian,
gur sonadh fh mar h, do
bhrígh go bhfuil dearbhtha go
ndearnadar na Spáinnigh
féidhm di, i gcanamhain
focal ó Laidin; .i. hierro,
harina, hermoso, i n-áit fer-
rum, farina, formosus; acht
i láthair ní sontar fh air
éan-chor, imne, a fhir, a fhirg,
fhirgna, a fhirn, a fhis, a fhith,
is mar ir, irgna, is cóir a
rádh, &c.



Gh.



Táid dhá chinéal fuaimne
ag gh: sonann sí go garbh
trá théid roimh ghoth leathan i
dtosach focail; .i. ghoineas;
arís mar y, ins an bhfocal
youth; .i. ghearras, gheallas;
i lár nó i ndeireadh focail
cailleann sí go huile a
son; .i. beathughadh, ceann-
aidhe, droighean, figheadhóir,


L. 28


greamughadh, leathnughadh,
muirighin, neartughadh, oighe,
práidhinn, súmaire, tighear-
na, ughdaracht, ughra; idir
a righibh, i n-ughaim na gcámh-
all. Táid maon leis, trá
curthar i lár focail mar
astránach, chum dhá shiolla
dhéanamh de ghothaidhibh; .i.
fuigheall.



Mh



Atá dhá fhuaim ag mh. Trá
théidheas roimh ghoth leathan i
dtús nó lár focail, sontar
é mar v no w mar so síos;
.i. mo mholadh, mo mháthair,
comhroinn, domhanghrabhadh,
Eamhain, foghmhar, gamhain,
samhfhuin, comhrainn; nárab
omh do mhúr, is mar wolu,
wáthair, gawin, sawfhuin,
cowroinn, &c., sontar iad
so. Trá thig roimh ghoth caol,
i dtosach nó meadhón focail,
nó chríochnuigheas éan-fhocal,
sontar é mar v; imne, mo
mhéar, mo mheanadh, a leimhe,
a lámh. Ní mór nach bhfuil
maon i lár focail i ndiaidh
gotha leathain; .i. comhursa,
sonann sé san ionad
chéadna mar an múchshrónach
u, trá bhíonn i n-a phríomh-ghoth
san tsiolla, .i. samhradh, trá
théidheas o, nó u, roimhe, ní
mór nach bhfuil maon; .i.
comhgar, is mar có-gar a
sontar é.


L. 29


Ph



'Sí fuaim f atá ag ph roimh
ghoth nó dheaghfhoghar; .i.
a Pheadair, a Phóil, a
Phádruig, do pheacuigheas,
mo pháiste; is mar a Fea-
dair, a Fóil, a Fádruig, do
feacuigheas, mo fáiste a
sontar iad; acht má lean-
ann e no i 'na n-aice, sos-
tar go hiomlán iad; .i.
a Philip is mar Ilip a
bhíonn.



Sh.



Is mar h go coitcheann
shíor-shonann sh; .i. mo Shlá-
nuightheóir, mo shúil, mo shál,
mo shearc, mo shéad, mo
shiúr, mo shlighe, mo shaoghal:
is minic bhíos s mar sh;
.i. sean, acht is mar hean
sontar shean.



Th,



mar an gcéadna, is mar
h amháin sontar th; .i. mo
thoil, a thinnis chuthaigh; acht is
ro-lag a fhuaim i ndeireadh
focail; .i. cruth, faith,
laith.



AR NA SEASMHACHAIBH.



Do bhrígh nach séimhighthear
agus nach n-urdhubhthar l,
n, ná r, atáid 'na seas-
mhachaibh,


L. 30


L.



Táid dhá fhuaim ag l, glé,
is lom; an chéad shon, mar
l Saics ins an bhfocal leap;
.i. lá, láidir, an dara son
mar l, ins an gceann dhéidh-
eanach den bhfocal million;
.i. leac.



N.



Mar a gcéadna is dá fhuaim
atá ag n, ar dtús lag
mar n san bhfocal fan nó
mar n ins an bhfocal Saics
never; .i. namhaid, nathair;
arís mar n láidir san bhfo-
cal neart, nocht, nó mar n
san bhfocal Saics news; i
ndeireadh focail, trá fill-
tear é, sonann sé go teann,
.i., ceann, cinn, lann, lonn,
fuinn, cuinneach, ceannrach,
fann, mann, onn, runn,
sonn, tonn-ghó, tonnach.



R.



Is dhá fhuaim go sonnradhach
bhíos ag r: an chéad shon
fada; .i. ramh, nó mar r
Saics san bhfocal road,
brand, far: an dara fuaim
mar r i réim, no mar r
Saics san bhfocal clarion.
Trá filltear é, bíonn
teann; .i. barrach, earr, &c.



Tá fuaim na litreacha
dúbalta chomh do-fhoghlumtha
sain is gur fearr a gclos


L. 31


ó thíorthach, .i. ó Chonnachtach,
Triughthach nó Chiarraidheach
béilbhinn.



TRÁCHT AR NA FUAIM-
NIBH FAITHREACHA.



B, sonann b leathan, mar b
san bhfocal bay, Sacs, .i.
baile, bana, banrach.



C, sonann c leathan, mar c
Sacs san bhfocal comb,
.i. cúl, cus, custum.



C, sonann c caol, mar k
Sacs san bhfocal king,
.i. ceann.



D, sonann d leathan, tiugh
is bog, mar th Sacs san
bhfocal though, .i. dán
quasi thán, darn, dubhán.



D, sonann d caol, mar d
Sacs san bhfocal duke,
.i. déirc, dés, díle, dílis.



F, sonann f gearr, mar f
Sacs san bhfocal fat, .i.
fail.



F, sonann f leathan roimh ai,
oi, ui, mar fw Sacs, .i.
fuidhir, fuigheall, fuighle.



M, sonann m leathan, mar
m Sacs san bhfocal
moon, .i. mór, mós,
mong.



M, sonann m gearr, mar m
Sacs san bhfocal mark,
.i. maith, mear, muin.


L. 32


P, sonann p leathan, mar p
Sacs san bhfocal pool, .i.
peann, pronn, pis, páiste.



S, sonann s leathan, mar s
Sacs san bhfocal son, .i.
cos, sál, samh, san, súil.



S, sonann s caol, mar sh
Sacs san bhfocal shift,
fish, .i. searc, silt, sirt,
slis.



T, sonann t leathan, mar
th Sacs san bhfocal
thumb; .i. toil, tom,
tonn, torann.



T, sonann t caol, mar t
Sacs san bhfocal tune;
.i. teine, teas, tig.



Is féidir na comhfhuaimne
a roinn i n-a n-ocht gcinéal:



1. c, p, t … bog
2. b, d, g … cruaidh
3. ch, th, fh, ph, sh … garbh
4. ll, nn, rr, m, ng … teann
5. bh, gh, mh, l, n, r, dh … éadtrom
6. f … lag
7. s … aimrid
8. h … folamh



Arís roinnte i n-a



b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, t … maon
b, m, p, f … bileach
d agus t … feagach
c agus g … carbadach
l, n, r, s … lom
d, l, n, r, s, t … teangach


L. 33


Clar Canamhna na gComhfhuaimneadh séimhidhe agus
dúbalta, i dtús is i ndeireadh focal.



bh … v as mo bhád, my boat
bh … v … mo bhlas, my taste
mh … v … mo mhias, my dish
mh … v … mo namhaid, my foe
mh … w … mo mhaith, my good
ch … ch … mo cheann, my head
ch … ch … mo chos, my foot
gh … gh … mo ghlún, my knee
gh … gh … mo ghiall, my jaw
fh … (silent) a fhál, his hedge
fh … (silent) a fhann, his folly
sh … h … a shaill, his fatness
sh … h … a shúil, his eye
th … h … do théad, thy rope



Is í fuaim h go caoin,
atá ag ch, dh, gh agus th, i ndiaidh
i nó e, i ndeireadh focal;
acht i ndiaidh gotha leathain
mar u no y; seal maon:
mh is bh mar v leis.



leinbh, children
libh, with ye
ruibh, brimstone
réidh, ready
báidh, wave
biaidh, will be
cáith, chaff
dáidh, vowel
fáidh, prophet
sáith, enough
táith, weld
fleadh, feast
liaigh, physician



meadh, a scale
beith, beech
bíodh, though
bráigh, captive
brígh, virtue
bruith, boil
diaidh, after
díth, want
dlúith, nimble
dóigh, hope
fiadh, deer
liaigh, blades of oars
bláith, smooth



braich, malt
caith, waste
doich, soon
maith, good
rith, run
troigh, foot
laogh, calf
tlúdh, tongs
cnáimh, bone
gníomh, deed
lámh, hand
áith, kiln
aoibh, pleasure


L. 34


amh, raw
ágh, luck
áth, ford
aodh, fire
badhbh, raven
báidh, love
báith, drown
balbh, mute
banbh, pig
baoth, wild, weak
bath, death
beith, birch
bíodhg, start
bioth, life
blodh, a part
bláith, plain
blaodh, shout
bleith, grind
both, hut
breith, verdict
brígh, value
buaibh, cows
buaidh, victory
cáidh, pure
caith, waste
caomh, gentle
cath, battle
céigh, quay
ciabh, lock of hair
ciach, fog
clamh, mange
cleith, fence
cliath, hurdle
clú, fame
clúmh, plume
cnagh, decay
cnaoi, pine
cneidh, wound
cnuimh, worm
cómh-, equal



colbha, post
criaidh, clay
críoch, the end
crioth, ague
croch, cross
crodh, portion
croidhe, heart
cruaidh, hard
crúdh, milking
dáimh, poet
dairbh, worm
deagh, good
diorbh, severe
díth, want
dlúith. close
dlúth, warp
dóigh, manner
dóigh, burn
drúth, fool
duadh, fatigue
éag, death
eoch, groaning
fadhbh, fault
fagh, get
fáidh, prophet
faobh, spoil
faoidh, voice
faoth, ease
feadhbh, widow
feag, tooth
feadh, letter
feagh, fathom
feath, skill
feadh, respite
féith, sinew
feigh, bloody
fiodh, wood
figh, weave
fiogh, wreath
fiuch, boil



flaith, lord
fliuch, wet
fuaidh, sew
fraoch, heath
fuath, hatred
gabh, take
gádh, peril
gaoth, wind
gath, ray
gidh, though
glaoidh, call
goimh, grudge
glaodh, call
gleodh, sigh
glodh, slime
gnáth, use
goth, vowel
groigh, herd
gruaidh, cheek
grádh, love
greadh, droll
greath, noise
gudhbh, college
guth, word
idh, ring
ith, eat
iach, salmon
iath, land
iodh, income
ioth, corn
laoidh, poem
léigh, read
leith, regard
libh, with ye
lí, colour
lobh, rot
luaidh, lead
luaith, ashes
lámh, hand
laoch, hero


L. 35


laodh, pith
laogh, calf
leagh, melt
leath, half
leamh, raw, an oar
leogh, soothe
liach, spoon
liaigh, physician
liath, grey
liúgh, shout
luadh, report
luath, swift
luibh, an herb
luidh, he went
marbh, the dead
maith, good
maoidh, bleach
méith, fat
mám, handful
maoth, tender
marbh, dead
meadh, balance
meadhg, whey
meath, decay
miach, bag
miadh, respect
miodh, honour
moch, early
modh, mode
nimh, poison
nídh, thing
nigh, wash
niadh, strong
nodh, noble
nuadh, new
och, alas
rádh, saying
raibh, was
rath, luck
réidh level



reodh, hoar frost
riamh, ever
ríomh, number
ríogh, king's
roth, wheel
ruadh, red
ruaidh, redden
roimh, sulphur
ruith, run
sabh, a bolt
sadhbh, salve
saidh, saith, bitch
sáimh, ease
samh, sorrel
sanchan, to and fro
saobh, silly
saoth, pain
scaith, cut off
scáth, shade
sceith, spew
sciath, shield
scoth, flower
séimh, mild
sgaoith, drove
sgíth, rest
sgeith, cast
sgraith, turf
sígh, spright
sith, pass
slaidh, kill
snáith, thread
snoidh, hew
sraith, marsh
stródh, waste
stuadh, gable
suidh, hero
stabh, kieve
staoth, a pull
staidhg, gullet
stamh, tangle



seadh, yes
seagh, worth
sgabh, saw-dust
sgaith, fine flax
sgeach, haw
sgiath, shield
sgíoth, fatigue
sgiuch, leap
sleagh, spear
sliabh, high hill
sluagh, host
snaidhm, knot
sneagh, nit
snuadh, blood
sodh, eclipse
sógh, pleasure
suth, issue
sreabh, rill
sreath, sling
stródh, pride
stuadh, sheet
sugh, juice
subh, berry, sap
tabh, the ocean
támh, rest
taobh, side
tarbh, bull
teath, a page
teidhm, theme
téidh, go on
te, hot
tiach, bag
tigh, house
tiugh, thick
tláith, faint
toigh, agreeable
toith, fetid
tnúdh, envy
togh, choose
toth, smell


L. 36


tráigh, strand
tráth, time
treabh, tribe
triath, a lord
troich, dwarf
troigh, foot
truagh, poor
truagh, woe
tuagh, an axe



tuaidh, the left
tuaidh, north
tubh, phiz
tuighe, straw
tuath, laity
uacht, a will
uath, alone
uaigh, grave



uaimh, cave
uath, dread
ubh, an egg
uidh, stop, care
uathbhás, awe
uch, oh, alas!
uth, an udder
uidhe, heed



Bheir Gramadaigh urdu-
bhadh, uirdiobhadh, nó teimh-
eal ar fhocal, chum easbhadh
focail i n-a rann nó díth
fuaimne litre i n-a bhfocal
a mhíniughadh.



Atá cumhacht na gcomh-
fhuaim ar a chéile chomh bríogh-
mhar sain, 's go dtochtann
ceann aca a fhoisgeach. Is
i dtosach focal bhaineas le
naethibh nó nídhthibh fághthar na
comhfhuaimne-se, le' ráidh-
tear astránach, imne, ins
na foclaibh-se: ar ndóirne,
ar ndóchas, ar ndiachta, a
gcumhachta, a gcosamhlacht,
a gcinn, a gcinnbheirt.



Dá bhrígh sin do réir
reachta ar dteanga, is éigin
dóibh súd a bheith i dtosach
focal, óir, tré dhúthchas
atáid coigcríoch do na foc-
laibh d'á bhfuilid réamh-
churtha. Táid comhfhuaimne
áirighthe ann urdhubhas a
bhfoisgeacha, 's go dtochtar
iad go hiomlán, amhail is
gan a mbeith; ní meastar
iad so a bheith astránach ná


L. 37


coimhthigheach, acht gur éigin
iad fás i ndíochlaonadh na
nduar, is na mbriathar.



Cum ar dteanga Ghaedh-
ilge a shíor-chongbháil beacht
i n-a fíor-eagar, dual is
milse, is ro-riachtanach do
na sár-ughdaraibh gach prímh-
litir shealbach a sgríobhadh;
muna mbeith go hannamh i
ndán.



Trá urdhubhas bh f, bí
'na mhalartach, agus sonann
mar w Sacs, trá leanas
goth leathan, .i. ar bhfás,
bhar bhfonn, bhar bhfuil; acht
roimh ghoth chaol mar v:
.i. ar bhfir, is mar ar vir
shonann sí.



Trá urdhubhthar g le n,
níl go hiomlán maon, acht
mar leath-shon géar a bhíos;
.i. mar ng san bhfocal king;
.i. ar ngnás; mar an gcéad-
na, trá théidheas g roimh
n, congbhuigheann n leath-shon
mar gn i ngnomon, .i. gnáth:
trá thig i lár focal: .i.
teanga, caingean, is éigin
a sonadh mar tea-nga, cai-
ngean. Ní bhfuil éan-fhuaim
san teanga Shacsanaigh i
gcosamhlacht chomh soilléir
lé' dtigh iad so a shonadh: is
usa a bhfoghluim le n-a
gclos ó thíorthach.



Ní urdhubhthar s, comhfhad
is bhíos sealbhach, is bhíos
duairghiolla roimhe, ná roimh


L. 38


maon ní séimhighthear í; acht
bí 'na mhalartach ar mhodh
eile; .i. mo shlat bárr, mo
shlaite, urdhubhthar s do
shíor le t. Ar mhodhaibh, trá
curthar an t-alt do réir
inscne na nduar rompa,
.i. don tslait, lámh an tsag-
airt. Bíd na hurdhubhtha so
ar thairgeachaibh is ar fhor-
carachaibh áirightheacha san
uimhir uathaidh, farra siu-
dhuaraibh, is ins an deilbheach
iolraidh.



Tá feidhm leo i mbriath-
raibh, i gcaidreachaibh, i
sruithbhriathraibh eagnair-
ceacha, agus ins an iriseachtach.



Táid na príomh-chomh-
fhuaimne sealbhacha (mar so
urdhubhtha) chomh feidhmeamh-
ail 's nach dtig a gcur as a
n-eagar, níos mó ná thig g
Sacs a chur as gnat, nó
gnaw; óir, thairis sin, bheith
a mbrígh go hiomlán
doichéillidhe; muna mbeith
meadhón cumaisgeacha nó
i ndán, is sin go hannamh.



Na dáil chéadna urdhubh-
as an chomhfhuaim thosaigh,
cuireann siad n roimh ghoth-
aidhibh: .i. ar n-ár, ar n-éan,
ar n-im, ar n-ór, ar n-úr,
mar an gcéadna, a, ar,
bhar, bhur, dá, is tuilleadh
eile, urdhubhaid na focail
a leanas; trá shéimhigheas
is urdhubhas a na malart-


L. 39


acha: .i., a chos, a mbád,
ar n-athair, ar ndán, bhar
mbruid, bhur ndos: dá
ndíolfainn, dá gcuirfinn,
dá bhfillfinn, dá dtoll-
fainn, dá ngearrfainn, dá
bpeacuighinn, dá mbuail-
finn, a ndéanamh.



Trá curthar an t-alt an
roimh dhuar bhanda, thosuigh-
eas lé malartach san
tsluinneach, is éigin don
chomhfhuaim a séimhiughadh, .i.
an bhean; má's den inscne
fheardha, ní athruigheann .i.
an fear; acht má théidheann
an roimh mhalartach, curthar
an séimhiughadh ar an deil-
bheach, má's den inscne
fheardha an duar: .i. sluinn-
each, an crann, deilbheach,
an chrainn, tairgeach, don
gcrann.



Is minic a múchtar goth
ins an nduairghiolla shealbh-
ach, do réir ndeagh-ghlóracht
na nod, trá curthar é roimh
fhocal a thosuigheas le goth
nó le f, .i. m'éadan,
m'fhear; ní mo éadan ná
mo fhear is cóir; athruigh-
thear d i ndo go t; .i.
d'éadan, t'éadan, t'fhear:
mar an gcéadna an siu-
dhuar do: .i. d'Éamonn,
d'fhior: agus fós an goth a
san alt an, trá leanas o,
do, fo nó fa: .i. ón mbád,
don áit, fán gcoill, fón
tom, im láimh, dod láimh, ód


L. 40


láimh; ní ó an mbád, do an
áit, fa an gcoill, fo an
tom, ann mo láimh, do do
láimh ná ó do láimh is cóir
a rádh. Séimhigheann do agus
mo malartacha, .i. do
cheann, mo ghlún. Sontar
n san alt an le foclaibh
leanas í, má tosuighthear le
goth nó leis an litir f:
eadhón, a nachros, a nfhal-
luing: t mar an gcéadna:
.i. an t-iasg.



Is múchadh no cadadh ann
trá baintear brígh freas-
tail h ó chomhfhuaim shéimh-
idhe; agus beirthear ar ais
í chum a chéad shon, comh
maith 's nach mbeith h ar
éanchor ann. Trá thig comh-
fhuaimne d'éan-chinéal diaidh
i ndiaidh a chéile, lé' dtig
a séimhiughadh; bíodh nó ná
bíodh an chéad aca séimhidhe,
bacann sí séimhiughadh an
chinn eile: bean dhubh, bean
dubh, gontha, gonthar, gonta,
buailthear, luaidhthear.
Mar so chongbhaigheann d, m
agus p a chéile ó shéimh-
iughadh; mar an gcéadna c
is g, d is t. Caduigheann
l, n, is s, ar a dteacht roimh
d is t, na séimhidhe.



Is báthadh cómhfhuaimneadh
ann, an uair a théidheas
dhá litir d'éan-chinéal i
bhfocal cumaisgthe, ionnus
go gcríochnuigheann aon aca


L. 41


mír, trá thosuigheas an
ceann eile; gur is nach
sonann acht aon aca, trá
múchtar an ceann eile: .i.,
sonann brat tirim, brai-
tirm, searbh-bhlas, searbhlas.



I bhfoclaibh dhó nó níos
mó de shiollaíbh, is éigin
do chóimhfhreagairt na
ngothaidhe bheith eagarach;
trá bhíos an goth déidheanach
den chéad tsiolla leathan,
is éigin don chéad ghoth san
tsiolla a leanas bheith
leathan leis; is trá bhíos
goth caol san tsiolla dhéi-
dheanach, is éigin don ghoth
théidheas roimhe bheith caol
amhlaidh, .i. is fíor-óir-
léaghadh duine; acht is
droch-eagar dune. Is í
seo an riaghail le' n-abarthar
caol le caol, is leathan le
leathan.



I bhfoclaibh d'ilshiollaíbh, is
cóir an chéad tsiolla a
chríochnughadh i gcomhfhuaim;
.i., fír-éan; an chuid eile
tosughadh le goth, no cumh-
fhuaim; .i., searc-amh-ail,
dar-san-tacht; acht i gcum-
aisgeachaibh amháin; .i., adh-
fhuathmhair-eacht, neamh-choimh-
theach.



AR NA hURDHUBHADHAIBH,
&c.



Is urdhubhadh ann, trá
sostar an phríomh nó an
chomhfhuaim shealbhach i n-éan-


L. 42


fhocal le linn táithte comh-
fhuaime eile, i n-a gcong-
bhuigheann an litir bhisigh a
son, .i. ar gciall; sostar
c le teacht g.



CLÁR NA nURDHUBHADH.



Urdhubhthar b le m &c.



b m … ar mbás … ar más … our death
b m … ar mbéal … ar méal … our mouth
b m … ar mbinn … ar minn … our regard
b m … ar mbonn … ar monn … our coin
b m … ar mbuar … ar muar … our cattle
f bh … ar bhfás … ar bhás … our growth
f bh … ar bhfearann ar bhearann … our land
f bh … ar bhfonn … ar bhonn … our desire
c g … ar gcath … ar gath … our fight
c cc … ar cceart … ar geart … our right
d n … ar ndánacht … ar nánacht … our boldness
d n … ar ndil … ar nil … our goods
d n … ar ndorn … ar norn … our fist
d n … ar ndul … ar nul … our snare
f ff … ar fflaith … ar bhlaith … our prince
f bhf … ar bhfios … ar bhios … our knowledge
g n … ar ngort … ar ngort … our garden
g n … ar nguais … ar nguais … our hazard
g n … ar ngnás … ar ngnás … our custom
p b … ar bpeann … ar beann … our pen
p b … ar bproinn … ar broinn … our dinner
p pp … ar ppian … ar bian … our pain
s t … an tslat … an tlat … the rod
t … an tslinn … an tlinn … the tile
t … an tsrón … an trón … the nose
t d … ar dteine … ar deine … our fire
t d … ar dtom … ar dom … our bush
t tt … ar ttús … ar dús … our beginning


L. 43


LÉIGHEANN.



Duair is Duairghiollaidhe
Sealbhacha.



a bhád, his boat
a bhean, his wife
a bhior, his spit
a bholg, his belly
a bhonn, his sole
a mhart, his cow
a mhéar, his finger
a mhian, his wish
a mholt, his sheep
a mhuc, his hog
a fháil, his ring
a fhear, his man
a fhíon, his wine
a fhód, his sod
a fhuil, his blood
a fhaill, his leisure
a shéad, his jewel
a shíol, his seed
a shoc, his beak
a shúil, his eye
a mbac, their crook
a mbeart, their load
a mbriocht, their mask
a mbrod, their pot-lid
a mbruid, their bondage
a gcaill, their loss
a gceird, their art
a gcliabh, their basket
a gclos, their hearing
a gcluain, their park
ar n-uisge, our water
ar n-ursa, our post
ar bhflaith, our prince
ar bhfleasg, our rod
ar bhfligh, our chickweed
ar bhfoirm, our image
ar bhfuacht, our cold
ar bpáirt, our share
ar bpeall, our covering
ar bpinn, our pens
ar bport, our fort
ar bpluc, our cheek
ar dtásg, our report
ar dtéacht, our jelly
ar dtríoll, our plot
ar dtrod, our shape
ar dtuaim, our town
ar gclár, our table
ar gceirt, our orchard
ar gcliabh, our basket
ar gcloch, our stone
ar gcuan, our shore
ar dtart, our thirst
ar dteine, our fire
ar dtiach, our bag
ar dtonn, our wave
ar dtorn, our kiln
ar n-am, our time
ar n-arm, our arms
ar n-earc, our bee
ar n-iasg, our fish
ar n-olann, our wool
ar n-ubh, our egg
bhar ndán, your poem
bhar ndrean, your wren
bhar ndril, your drop
bhar ndrol, your loop
bhar ndrud, your inclosure
bhar bpáirt, your part
bhar bpeann, your pen
bhar bpis, your peas
bhar bproinn, your dinner


L. 44


bhar bport, your song
d'áit, your place
d'éan, your bird
d'fheac, thy spade-handle
d'fhios, thy skill
d'fhonn, thy wish
d'fhuan, thy cloth
t'fhail, thy den
t'fhead, thy whistle
do chat, thy cat
do cheann, thy head
do chíos, thy rent
do chos, thy foot
do chú, thy hound
do dhruim, thy back
do ghad, thy withe
do ghéag, thy branch
do ghiall, thy jaw
do ghort, thy field
do pheann, thy pen
do phic, thy pitch
do phóg, thy kiss
do phunc, thy point
d'im, your butter
d'ór, your gold
d'uan, your lamb
dod mháthair, to thy mother
ód thír, from thy land
fa thuaith, towards the north
fán bhfairge, under the sea
fón n-úir, under the earth
im láimh. in my hand
m'fhalc, my hook
m'fheidhm, my use
mo bhás, my death
mo bhean, my wife
mo bhís, my vice
mo bhonn, my sole
mo charn, my heap
mo cheart, my right
mo chíor, my comb
mo chorp, my body
mo chum, my waist
mo dhán, my poem
mo dhearc, my eye
mo dhris, my briar
mo dhruim, my back
mo ghlac, my palm
mo ghéag, my branch
mo ghrís, my fire
mo ghlonn, my deed
mo ghlún, my knee
mo mhart, my cow
mo mhéar, my finger
mo mhias, my dish
mo mhong, my hair
mo mhull, my cape
mo tharbh, my bull
mo théad, my rope
mo thír, my land
mo thorc, my boar
mo thorn, my kiln
mo dháid, my father
mo dhéad, my jaw
mo dhing, my wedge
mo dhorn, my fist
mo dhuan, my poem
m'abhall, my apple
m'éadan, my face
m'iarann, my iron
m'oide, my teacher
m'uair, my hour



Sgríobhthar gh ar uairibh
ar son dh i lár nó i ndeireadh
focal. Bíonn an mhalairt


L. 45


cóir,* trá shonann an fhuaim
ionann, agus nach bhfuil an
t-athrughadh neimhionann
don phríomhfhocal, imne, is
cóimhionann laodh, fiadhaighe,
nó laogh is fiaghaidhe a
sgríobhadh; acht ní cóir
naoidhin a sgríobhadh ar son
naoighin do bhrígh go bhfuil
cumasgtha ó nae agus gein.†



Is mionfhocal gach fuidhir
a réamhchurthar le duar, le
briathar, no le sruithbhria-
thar, chum a ghné, a cáil-
lidheacht, nó a ghnáth-bhrígh a
shoillsiughadh; táid na mion-
fhocla réamhchurtha le modh-
thaibh, 'na gcomharthaidhibh do
na modhthaibh d'á mbeanann:
neartuighid mionfhocla
réamhchurtha le briathraibh a
mbrígh, .i. anchaoin, aith-
bhreathnuigh, aithghein; ghníd
mionfhocla réimhbhriathar
de thládhfhoclaibh le linn a
gcur rompa, .i. go milis,
go garg, go luath. Táid
cuid díobh diúltach, cinn-
teach, fiafraightheach, cosgach,
connradhach, deimhneach, is
roighneach. Meastar le
dream nár chóir na mion-
fhocla bheith corr don riaghail
caol le caol is leathan le
leathan i n-eagar na ngoth-



*Ní cóir an mhalairt seo indiu.
— F.E.



†Is mícheart míostuamdha an
sanas é seo. — F.E.


L. 46


aidhe a leanas iad i n-a
gcumasg, nó i n-a ngléire;
.i. inmholta, anbhfios, romhi-
lis, sármhilis, fearrde.


L. 46


Deich nDiúltadh na Gaedhilge, annso síos.



Neamh, an nó ur, amh, éag, eas;
É, éad, do, ní hord dímheas;
Ing, mí, ní modh ceilge.



Amh gar, convenience … amhgar, inconvenience
aimh neart, strength … aimhneart, weakness
an caint, talk … anchaint, slander
an ró, prosperity … anró, adversity
éad fulang, patience … éadfhulang, impatience
éad trom, heavy … éadtrom, light
éag ceart, justice … éigceart, injustice
do coimseach, comprehensible … dochoimseach, incomprehensible
doi meas, measure … doimheas, infinite
doi síon, weather … doineann, inclement weather
doi cioll, inclination … doicheall, illiberality
dí fial, free … dífial, inhospitality
dí meas, esteem … dímheas, contempt
mi ciall, sense … míchiall, folly
mi rath, profit … míreath, misfortune
mí modh, respect … míomhodh, disrespect
mí sásta, pleased … míoshásta, displeased
neamh buan, constant … neamhbhuan, transitory
neamh nídh, thing … neimhnídh, vanity
eas caraid, a friend … eascaraid, an enemy
eas lán, perfect … easlán, unwell
ain fios, knowledge … ainbhfios, ignorance
an sógh, happiness … anshógh, misery
an uaisle, nobleness … anuaisle, baseness
ing gle, clean … inglé, dirty
iom fulang, patience … iomfhulang, long-suffering
iom tnúth, zeal … iomthnúth, envy


L. 47


Cuid ar mhodh eile.



ur gránna, ugly … urghránna, very ugly
ath buailte, beaten … athbhuailte, re-beaten
in déanta, done … indéanta, fit to be done
ion rádh, saying … ionráite, fit to be spoken
so blasta, tasted … sobhlasta, well-flavoured
so sínte, stretched … soshínte, ductile
so leaghta, melted … soleaghta, fusible.



TRÁCHT AR SHANAS NA bhFOCAL.



Is ros Graiméar nó broinn-
fhréamh lé a dtuigmid léigh-
eadh, sgríobhadh, is labhairt
go beacht.



Táid ceithre míre i mbroinn-
fhréamh: .i. Óirléghadh, Fo-
rusfhocail, Cóimhréir, is
Áilbhlas.



'Sé an tÓirléaghadh fíor-
eagar na litreacha.



'Sé an Forusfhocail sanas
na mbriathar.



'Sí an Chóimhréir fíor-ughaim
na bhfocal le chéile.



'Sé an tÁilbhlas fíor-chan-
amhain na mbriathar.



Táid naoi míre i n-urlabhra;
.i. alt, duar, duarghiolla,
briathar, sruithbhriathar,
réimhbhriathar, comhnasg,
siudhuar agus áilbhreas.



Is mír d'ar gcaint an t-alt,
thigeas roimh lánfhoclaibh, le
n-a mbrígh dhoichríochta
dhearbhughadh, .i., ceann,
cum, is ceannfhaire; an
t-abhall, an t-éan is an


L. 48


t-iasgaire; an t-ór, an
t-uan is an t-urchaire; an
áit, an eala, is an fhionnóg,
an irís, an inis, is an
tsliseog; an óisg, an ola,
is an ultóg.



Táid dhá ghné nduar; .i.
lánfhocal is tládhfhocal.



Is duar nó lánfhocal gach
nídh chímid, chloismid nó
thuigmid, .i. fear, féar,
gaoth, géim, meas, méin,
ceann, ciall, agus tinneas.



Roinntear an lánfhocal i n-a
ghné dhíleas is choitcheann.



Bí an lánfhocal díleas, trá
fhreagras d'éan-nídh de
chinéal; .i. Ádhamh, Éire,
Áth Cliath. Is duar coit-
cheann fhreagras don uile
chinéal; .i. fear, cathair,
abhainn, saoghal. bean,
is muintir, bó, caora,
is olann.



Bíonn uimhir, insgne, orarus
soidhbhris nó díochlaonadh.
alt is airdiomrádh ag
duaraibh.



Is tládhfhocal gach focal
fhoillsigheas cáilidheacht an
duair, .i. flann, fíor, gann,
géar, maith, menn is monach;
síoth-sgéal, teagasg glan,
daoine grinne, deaghmhná,
searbhfoghantuidhe umhal.



Is féidir tládhfhocail a chur
i ngléire nó i n-iomarbhuidhe
le n-a mbrígh a bhisiughadh
nó a laghdughadh.


L. 49


Táid trí céimeanna i
ngléire; .i. dearbhthach,
coibhchéimeach, is sáirchéi-
meach, .i. árd, níos airde,
ro-árd; maith, níos fearr,
sár-mhaith.



Táid dhá insgne; .i. firinsg-
ne agus baininsgne.



Foillsigheann an t-insgne
an gné. Is firinsgne gach
fireann; .i. fear, leoghan
is scafaire, reithe, tarbh is
sealgaire, coileach, cullach,
is groighire, taoiseach, luam,
ríghfhine, oide, file, cea-
tharnach.



Is baininsgne gach boin-
eann; .i. bean, murdhúch is
lonnóg; bó, caora, is iar-
ndoe; cráin, láir, is iaróg;
gé, ciarseach, is tonnóg.



Táid dhá uimhir; .i. uimhir
uathaidh, is uimhir iolraidh.



Is uimhir uathaidh aon, .i. aon bhó.
Is uimhir iolraidh níos mó.



Uimhir uath.
fear, cú, is each
bean, bó, is beach.



Uimhir iol.
fir, coin, is eich.
mná, ba, is beich.



'Siad oraruis na nduar na
hathruighthe a ghníthear i n-a
dtús is i n-a ndeireadh,
le' bhfoillsighthear an dáil
nó an dóigh le a mbaineann
siad do nídhthibh eile.



Táid sé oraruis; .i. sluinn-
each, deilbheach, tairgeach,
liudhuarach, nuailleach, is
forcarach.


L. 50


Tig an sluinneach i ndiaidh
an bhriathair; .i. léigheann
an sgoláire maith go grinn.



Foillsigheann an deilbheach
seilbh; .i. lámh athara.



“Do” nó “don” is cron don
tairgeach; .i. don bhfear.



Tig an liudhuarach i ndiaidh
an bhriathair; .i. léigheann
an sgoláire maith a leabhar.



An t-uailleach mar an
deilbheach, acht go bhfuil a,
ó nó gairm mar chomharthaíbh
eile go coitcheann leis; .i.
á fhir, a mhuirnín mo chroidhe;
a Mháire nó Mhuire!



An forcarach mar an tair-
geach; .i. ón bhfear, ón
mnaoi, ón tsliabh.



TRÁCHT AR AN ALT.



Níl insa nGaedhilg acht
an t-éan-phríom-alt (an),
cóimhionann i mbrígh leis
an tSacs-alt chríochach the.
Ní athruigheann sé i n-éan-
orarus san uimhir uathaidh,
acht i nduaraibh banda, trá
ghnídheas “na” 'san deilbheach
amháin. Ghní na 'san uimhir
iolraidh go huile, acht san
deilbheach de dhuaraibh a
thosuigheas le goth, le d nó
g, a ghlacas n mar bhiseach,
agus tháthuigheas leis an
gcéad litir den nduar; .i.
na n-inghean; na n-imtheacht;
na ndeoch; na ndiacht: na


L. 51


ngort; na nguidhbhreitheamh.
Is mar so a díochlaonthar an
t-alt:



uimhir uathaidh.



sluinneach, nom. an,
mas. agus fem.
deilbheach, gen. an, mas. na fem.
tairgeach, dative an.
liudhuarach, accus. an.
nuailleach, vocative.
forcarach, ablative an.



Gidh curthar “a'” go minic
i n-ionad “an,” acht tá cor
san modh so, go ndéantar
an duar a leanas “an,”
agus an duar théidheas roimh
“a'” tréan; .i. ceann a' mhar-
caigh, ceann an mharcaigh.



Glacann na duair bhanda
thosuigheas le goth h i dtús
an deilbhigh, le n-a sonadh
go teann; acht congbhuigh-
eann an goth a neart ins
na duair fheardha; .i. taobh
dheas a héadain; taobh dheas
a éadain.



SOIDHBHRIS NA nDUAR.



Táid trí soidhbhris ag duair
fheardha, a trí eile ag
duair bhanda. Is den
chéad shoidhbhreas na duair
fheardha thosuigheas le goth,
a ghlacas t- i dtosach an
tsluinnigh is an liudh. uath-
aidh, agus h- le gach orarus
iolraidh, acht na deilbhigh
amháin a ghlacas n-; caol-
uigheann siad insan deilbh-


L. 52


each uath. agus ins an
tsluinneach is liudh. iol-
raidh; muna bhfuinidh siad i
ngoth, a mhaireas ionann
i ndeireadh gach oraruis,
acht san tairgeach is forc.
uath. a ghlacas ar uairibh -bh:
Bí e, idh nó idhe san tsluin-
neach liudh. is nuail. iol-
raidh; ghní na duair chaol-
uighthe go minic an dara
sluinneach, liudh. is nuail.
i n-“a,” is -bh mar thuas.



SOMPLA.



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
sluinneach, an t-alt, the joint
deilbheach, an ailt, of the joint
tairgeach, do'n alt, to the joint
liudhuarach, an t-alt, the joint
nuailleach, a ailt, O joint
forcarach, ó'n alt, from the joint.



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
sluinneach, na hailt, the joints
deilbheach, na n-alt, of the joints
tairgeach, do na haltaibh, to the joints
liudhuarach, na hailt, the joints
nuailleach, a ailt nó alta, O joints
forcarach, ó na hailt nó haltaibh, from the joints.



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an t-easbog grinn
d. an easbuig ghrinn
t. do'n easbog ghrinn
l. an t-easbog grinn
n. a easbuig ghrinn
f. ó'n easbog grinn



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na heasbuig ghrinne
d. na n-easbog grinn, ng-
t. dona heasbogaibh grinne
l. na heasbuig ghrinne
n. a easbuig, -a ghrinne
f. ó na heasbogaibh grinne



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an t-éan bán
d. an éin bháin
t. do'n éan bhán
l. an t-éan bán
n. a éin bháin
f. ó'n éan bán



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na héin bhána nó héanta bána
d. na n-éan bán, mb-
t. do na héin bhána
l. na héin bhána
n. a éanta bána
f. ó na héin nó héantaibh


L. 53


UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an t-iasg beag
d. an éisg bhig
t. do'n iasg bheag
l. an t-iasg beag
n. a éisg bhig
f. ó'n iasg beag



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na héisg, -a, bheaga
d. na n-iasg beag, mb-
t. do na héisg bheaga
l. na héisg bheaga
n. ó iasga beaga
f. ó na héisg nó hiasgaibh beaga



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an t-inneach caol
d. an innigh chaoil
t. do'n inneach chaol
l. an t-inneach caol
n. ó innigh chaoil
f. ó'n inneach caol



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na hinnigh chaola
d. na n-inneach caol, gc-
t. do na hinnibh caola
l. na hinnigh chaola
n. a innigh, inneacha caola
f. ó na hinnibh caola



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an t-inte milis
d. an inte mhilis
t. do'n inte mhilis
l. an t-inte milis
n. a inte mhilis
f. ó'n inte mhilis



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s, na hintí nó hintidhe milse
d. na n-inteadh milis
t. do na hintibh milse
l. na hintidhe milse
n. a intidhe milse
f. ó na hintibh milse



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an t-ord diur
d. an uird dhiuir
t. do'n ord dhiur
l. an t-ord diur
n. a uird dhiuir
f. ó'n ord diur



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na huird, -a, dhiura
d. na n-ord diur, nd-
t. do na huird, -aibh, diura
l. na huird dhiura
n. a orda diura
f. ó na huird, -aibh diura



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
sluinneach, an t-ubhall glas, the green apple
deilbheach, an ubhaill ghlais, of the green apple
tairgeach, do'n ubhall ghlas, to the green apple
liudhuarach, an t-ubhall glas, a green apple
nuailleach, a ubhaill ghlais, O green apple
forcarach, ó'n ubhall glas, from a green apple



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
sluinneach, na hubhaill ghlasa nó abhla glasa, green
apples
deilbheach na n-ubhall glas, of the green apples
tairgeach, do na hubhlaibh glasa, to the green apples
liudhuarach, na hubhaill ghlasa, the green apples
nuailleach, a ubhaill nó ubhla glasa, O green apples
forcarach, ó na hubhlaibh glasa, from the green apples.


L. 54


Is de'n dara soidhbhreas na
duair fheardha thosuigheas
le comhfhuaimnibh a séimhigh-
thear nó urdhubhthar
maille le séimhiughadh san
uimhir uath. Caoluigheann
siad, mar dhuair an chéad
shoidhbhris; muna méad-
uighidh an deilbheach le
biseach a, ghní ch, gh san
deilbheach uath. is ins an
tsluinneach liudh is nuail.
iol. Ghníd na duair
fheardha so a chríochnuigheas
i n-a ngoth nó -dh, -e, -idh
no -idhe san tsluinneach
liudh. is nuail. iol. agus
glacaid -ibh nó -aibh san
tairgeach is liudh. iol.
mar ó cheana, maille
leis an dara sluinneach,
liudh. is nuail. san uimhir
iolraidh, má's goth leathan
a bhíos roimh an gcomh-
fhuaim dhéidheanaigh.



SOMPLA.



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an braineach calma, the brave captain
d. an bhrainigh chalma, of the brave captain
t. do'n mbraineach chalma, to the brave captain
l. an braineach calma, the brave captain
n. a bhrainigh chalma, O brave captain
f. ó'n mbraineach calma, from the brave captain.



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na brainigh chalma, the brave captains
d. na mbraineach calma, gc-, of the brave captains
t. do na brainibh calma, to the brave captains
l. na brainigh chalma, the brave captains
n. a bhrainigh chalma, O brave captains
f. ó na brainibh calma, from the brave captains.


L. 55


UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an crann ciar
d. an chrainn chéir
t. do'n gcrann chiar
l. an crann chiar
n. a chrainn chéir
f. ó'n gcrann ciar



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na crainn chiara
d. na gcrann ciar, gc-
t. do na crainn chiara
l. na crainn chiara
n. a chranna ciara
f. ó na crainn chiara



IOLRADH
s. na cranna ciara
d. na gcrann ciar, -gc
th do na crannaibh ciara
l. na cranna ciara
n. a chranna ciara
f. ó na crannaibh ciara



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an ceol binn
d. an cheoil bhinn
t. do'n gceol bhinn
l. an ceol binn
n. a cheoil bhinn
f. ó'n gceol bhinn



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na ceoil bhinne
d. na gceol binn, mb-
t. do na ceoil bhinne
l. na ceoil bhinne
n. a cheolta binne
f. ó na ceoil bhinne



IOLRADH
s. na ceolta binne
d. na gceol binn, mb-
t. do na ceoltaibh binne
l. na ceolta binne
n. a cheolta binne
f. ó na ceoltaibh binne



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an fál mín
d. an fháil mhín
t. do'n bhfál mhín
l. an fál mín
n. a fháil mhín
f. ó'n bhfál mín



IOLRAIDH
s. na fálta míne
d. na bhfál mín
t. do na fáltaibh míne
l. na fáil mhine
n. a fhálta míne
f. ó na fáil mhíne



IOLRADH
s. na fálta míne
d. na bhfál mín
t. do na fáltaibh míne
l. na fálta míne
n. a fhálta míne
f. ó na fáltaibh míne



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an giall géar
d. an ghéill ghéir
t. do'n ngiall ghéar
l. an giall géar
n. a ghéill ghéir
f. ó'n ngiall géar




UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na géill ghéara
d. na ngiall géar, ng-
t. do na giallaibh géara
l. na géill ghéara
n. a ghialla géara
f. ó na géill ghéara



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an giolla gasta
d. an ghiolla ghasta
t. do'n ngiolla ghasta
l. an giolla gasta
n. a ghiolla ghasta
f. ó'n ngiolla gasta



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na giollaidhe gasta
d. na ngiolladh gasta, ng-
t. do na giollaíbh gasta
l. na giollaidhe gasta
n. a ghiollaidhe gasta
f. ó na giollaíbh gasta


L. 56


UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an meanadh mór
d. an mheanaidh mhóir
t. do'n meanadh mhór
l. an meanadh mór
n. a mheanaidh mhóir
f. ó'n meanadh mór



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na meanaidhe móra
d. na meanadh mór
t. do na meanaidhibh móra
l. na meanaidhe móra
n. a mheanaidhe móra
f. ó na meanaidhibh móra



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an seabhac luath
d. an tseabhaic luaith
t. do'n tseabhac luath
l. an seabhac luath
n. a sheabhaic luaith
f. ó'n tseabhac luath



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na seabhaic luatha
d. na seabhac luath
t. do na seabhcaibh luatha
l. na seabhaic luatha
n. a sheabhca luatha
f. ó na seabhcaibh luatha



Is de'n treas soidhbhreas
na duair fheardha thosuigheas
le comhfhuaimnibh, a dhiúl-
tigheas séimhiughadh is ur-
dhubhadh san uimhir uath., acht
urdhubhas an deilbheach iol-
raidh amháin. Bíonn go
coitcheann mar dhuaraibh an
dara soidhbhris ins na hor-
aruis eile.



SOMPLA.



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an damh reamhar
d. an daimh reamhair
t. do'n damh reamhar
l. an damh reamhar
n. a dhaimh reamhair
f. ó'n damh reamhar



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na daimh reamhra
d. na ndamh reamhar
t. do na daimh reamhra
l. na daimh reamhra
n. a dhamha reamhra
f. ó na daimh, -aibh reamhra.



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an lot doimhin
d. an luit, -a dhoimhin
t. do'n lot doimhin
l. an lot doimhin
n. a luit dhoimhin
f. ó'n lot doimhin



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na luit, -a, dhoimhne
d. na lot doimhin. nd-
t. do na luit, -aibh doimhne.
l. na luit, -a, dhoimhne
n. a lota doimhne
f. ó na luit, -aibh doimhne


L. 57


UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an nasg trom
d. an naisg thruim
t. do'n nasg throm
l. an nasg trom
n. a naisg thruim
f. ó'n nasg throm



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na naisg throma
d. na nasg trom, dt-
t. do na naisg throma
l. na naisg throma
n. a nasga troma
f. ó na naisg, -aibh troma



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an rann lán
d. an rainn láin
t. do'n rann lán
l. an rann lán
n. a rainn láin
f. ó'n rann lán



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na ranna lána
d. na rann lán
t. do na rannaibh lána
l. na ranna lána
n. a ranna lána
f. ó na rannaibh lána



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an spád úr
d. an spáid úir
t. do'n spád úr
l. an spád úr
n. a spáid úir
f. o'n spád úr



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na spáid, -a úra
d. na spád úr, n-úr
t. do na spáid, -aibh úra
l. na spáid, -a úra
n. a spáid, -a úra
f. ó na spáid, -aibh úra



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an t-eas riabhach
d. an easa riabhaigh
t. do'n eas riabhach
l. an t-eas riabhach
n. a eas riabhaigh
f. ó'n eas riabhach



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na heasa riabhacha
d. na n-eas riabhach
t do na heasaibh riabhacha
l. na heasa riabhacha
n. a easa riabhacha
f. ó na heasaibh riabhacha



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an cath mór
d. an chatha mhóir
t. do'n gcath mhór
l. an cath mór
n. a chath mhóir
f. ó'n gcath mór



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na catha móra
d. na gcath mór
t. do na cathaibh móra
l. na catha móra
n. a chatha móra
f. ó na cathaibh móra



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an druim bán
d. an droma báin, bháin
t. do'n druim bhán
l. an druim bán
n. a dhruim bháin
f. ó'n druim bán



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na droma, -nna bána
d. na ndruim bán, mb-
t. do na dromaibh bána
l. na droma bána
n. a dhroma bána
f. ó na dromaibh bána


L. 58


UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an gruth reamhar
d. an ghrotha reamhair
t. do'n ngruth reamhar
l. an gruth reamhar
n. a ghruth reamhair
f. ó'n ngruth reamhar



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na grotha reamhra
d. na ngruth reamhar
t. do na grothaibh reamhra
l. na grotha reamhra
n. a ghrotha reamhra
f. ó na grothaibh reamhra



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an gleann fliuch
d. an ghleanna fhliuich,
fhlich
t. do'n ngleann fhliuch
l. an gleann fliuch
n. a ghleann fhliuich, fhlich
f. ó'n ngleann fliuch



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na gleanna, -ta fliucha
d. na ngleann fliuch, bhf-
t. do na gleannaibh fliucha
l. na gleannta fliucha
n. a ghleanna, -ta fliucha
f. ó na gleanntaibh fliucha



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an loch lán
d. an locha láin
t. do'n loch lán
l. an loch lán
n. a loch láin
f. ó'n loch lán



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na locha lána
d. na loch lán
t. do na lochaibh lána
l. na locha lána
n. a locha lána
f. ó na lochaibh lána



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an sruth fuar
d. an tsrotha fuair,
fhuair
t. do'n tsruth fhuar
l. an sruth fuar
n. a shruth fhuair
f. ó'n tsruth fuar



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na srotha fuara
d. na sruth fuar, bhf-
t. do na srothaibh fuara
l. na srotha fuara
n. a shrotha fuara
f. ó na srothaibh fuara



Is de'n chéad shoidhbhreas gach
duar banda thosuigheas le
guth, ghlacas n- i dtús an
tsluinnigh, tairg., liudh.,
fhorc. is e no a mar
bhiseach leis an deilbh.,
chaoluigheas agus bhíos go coit-
cheann mar na duair
fheardha san uimhir iolraidh.


L. 59


UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an ascall the
d. na hascaille te
t. do'n ascaill the
l. an ascall the
n. a ascall the
f. ó'n ascaill the



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na hascaillidhe, -a teotha
d. na n-ascall te, dt-
t. do na hascaillaibh teotha
l. na hascaillidhe teotha
n. a ascaillidhe teotha
f. ó na hascaillibh teotha



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an imlinn fhann
d. na himlinne fainne
t. do'n imlinn fhainn
l. an imlinn fhann
n. a imlinn fhann
f. ó'n imlinn fhainn



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na himlinne fanna
d. na n-imlinn fann, bhf-
t. do na himlinnibh fanna
l. na himlinne fanna
n. a imlinne fanna
f. ó na himlinnibh fanna



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an inis ghlan
d. na hinse glaine
t. do'n inis ghlain
l. an inis ghlan
n. a inis ghlan
f. ó'n inis ghlain



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na hinsidhe glana
d. na n-inis glan, ng-
t. do na hinsibh glana
l. na hinsidhe glana
n. a insidhe glana
f. ó na hinsibh glana



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an uair dhéidheanach
d. na huaire déidheanaigh
t. do'n uair dhéidheanaigh
l. an uair dhéidheanach
n. a uair dhéidheanach
f. ó'n uair dhéidheanach



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na huaire déidheanacha
d. na n-uair déidheanach, nd-
t. do na huairibh déidheanacha
l. na huaire déidheanacha
n. a uaire déidheanacha
f. ó na huairibh déidheanacha



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an óigh óg
g. na hóighe óige
t. do'n óigh óig
l. an óigh óg
n. a óigh óg
f. ó'n óigh óig



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na hóighe óga
d. na n-óigh óg, n-óg
t. do na hóighibh óga
l. na hóighe óga
n. a óighe óga
f. ó na hóighibh óga



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an easgon gheal
d. na heasgoine gile
t. do'n easgoin ghil



IOLRADH
s. na heasgonaidhe geala
d. na n-easgon geal, ng-
t. do na heasgonaibh geala



Is de'n dara soidhbhreas gach
duar banda thosuigheas le


L. 60


comhfhuaim, séimhighthear no
urdhubhthar ins an tsluinn-
each mar na duair fheardha,
caoluighthear is ghlacann
-e, san deilbh uath. mar
bhiseach, ghní -a san ts.,
liu. iolr.; cuid eile -e.



SOMPLA.



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an chos chaol
d. na coise caoile
t. do'n gcois chaoil
l. an chos chaol
n. a chos chaol
f. ó'n gcois chaoil



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na cosa caola
d. na gcos caol, gc-
t. do na cosaibh caola
l. na cosa caola
n. a chosa caola
f. ó na cosaibh caola



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an chearc chiar
d. na circe céire
t. do'n gcirc chéir
l. an chearc chiar
n. a chearc chiar
f. ó'n gcirc chéir



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na cearca ciara
d. na gcearc ciar, gc-
t. do na cearcaibh ciara
l. na cearca ciara
n. a chearca ciara
f. ó na cearcaibh ciara



UATHAIDH
s. an bhoth bheag
d. na boithe bige
t. do'n mboith bhig



IOLRAIDH
s. na botha beaga
d. na mboth beag, mb-
t. do na bothaibh beaga



UATHAIDH
s. an fhailc chumhaing
d. nó failce cumhainge
t. do'n bhfailc chumhaing



IOLRAIDH
s. na failcidhe cumhainge
d. na bhfailc cumhaing, gc-
t. do na failcibh cumhainge



UATHAIDH
s. an ghéag ghearr
d. na géige girre
t. do'n ngéig ghirr



IOLRAIDH
s. na géaga gearra
d. na ngéag gearr, ng-
t. do na géagaibh gearra



UATHAIDH
s. an mhias mhór
d. na méise móire
t. do'n méis mhóir



IOLRAIDH
s. na miasa móra
d. na mi as mór
t. do n a miasaibh móra



UATHAIDH
s. an tiach thiugh
d. na tíche tiuighe
t. do'n dtích thiuigh



IOLRAIDH
s. na tiacha tiugha
d. na dtiach tiugh, dt-
t. do na tiachaibh tiugha


L. 61


UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an tslat mhín
d. na slaite míne
t. do'n tslait mhín
l. an tslat mhín
n. a shlat mhín
f. ó'n tslait mhín



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na slata míne
d. na slat mín
t. do na slataibh míne
l. na slata míne
n. a shlata míne
f. ó na slataibh míne



Is de'n treas soidhbhreas
gach duar banda thosuigh-
eas le d, l, n, r, is s,
nach séimhighthear is nach
n-urdhubhthar, acht d- 'san
deilbheach iolraidh amháin.
Ghníd a n-oraruis san
uimhir iolraidh mar na
duair bhanda.



SOMPLA.



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an deilf dhubh
d. na deilfe duibhe
t. do'n deilf dhuibh
l. an deilf dhubh
n. a dheilf dhubh
f. ó'n deilf dhuibh



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na deilfí dubha
d. na ndeilf dubh, nd-
t. do na deilfíbh dubha
l. na deilfí dubha
n, a dheilfí dubha
f. ó na dheilfíbh dubha



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an dris cham
d. na drise caime
t. do'n dris chaim
l. an dris cham
n. a dhris cham
f. ó'n dris chaim



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na driseacha cama
d. na ndris cam, gc-
t. do na driseachaibh cama
l. na driseacha cama
n. a dhriseacha cama
f. ó na driseachaibh cama



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an lámh láidir
d. na láimhe láidre
t. do'n láimh láidir
l. an lámh láidir
n. a lámh láidir
f. ó'n láimh láidir



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na lámha láidre
d. na lámh láidir
t. do na lámhaibh láidre
l. na lámha láidre
n. a lámha láidre
f. ó na lámhaibh láidre


L. 62


UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an neasg thinn
d. na neisge tinne
t. do'n neisg thinn
l. an neasg thinn
n. a neasg thinn
f. ó'n neisg thinn



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na neasga tinne
d. na neasg tinn, dt-
t. do na neasgaibh tinne
l. na neasga tinne
n. a neasga tinne
f. ó na neasgaibh tinne



UATHAIDH
s. an rinn ruadh
d. na rinne ruaidhe
t. do'n rinn ruaidh



IOLRAIDH
s. na rinne ruaidhe
d. na rinn ruadh
t. do na rinnibh ruaidhe



UIMHIR UATHAIDH
s. an spéir ard
d. na spéire airde
t. do'n spéir aird
l. an spéir ard
n. a spéir ard
f. ó'n spéir aird



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH
s. na spéartha arda
d. na spéar ard, n-a.
t. do na spéarthaibh arda
l. na speartha arda
n. a spéartha arda
f. ó na spéarthaibh arda



CLÁR



Chum Díochlaonadh na
ndeacht-nduar bhfeardha is
banda a dhéanamh réidh do'n
léightheóir ins an Deilbheach
uath. agus ins an tSluinn-
each agus Deilbheach iol-
raidh annso síos.



Duair fheardha.



Rinne na nduar



Sluinneach uath.



ab … ab
abh … sliabh
ac … mac
ach … marcach
ad … bád
adh … cogadh
ag … cnag
agh … bágh
all … abhall
am … cúram
amh … cnáimh
an … grán



Deilbheach uath.



an aib, abadh
an tsléibhe
an mhic
an mharcaigh
an bháid
an chogaidh
an chnaig
an bháigh
an abhaill
an chúraim
an chnáimh, -a
an ghráin



I Saicsbhéarla



lord, abbot
hill
a son
a rider
a boat
war
a crack
a battle
an apple
care
a bone
grain



Sluinneach iol.



aba
sléibhte
mic
marcaigh
báid
cogaidhe, -tha
cnaig
báigh
abhaill, -a
cúraim
cnáimh, -a
gráin



Deilbheach iol.



na n-ab
na sliabh
na mac
na marcach
na mbád
na gcogadh
na gcnag
na mbágh
na n-abhall
na gcúram
na gcnámh
na ngrán


L. 63


Rinne na nduar



Sluinneach uath.



ann … crann
ap … cnap
ar… clár
as … bás
at … brat
ath … cath
er … aer
eas … béas
ir … athair
ith … flaith
ob … gob
obh … crobh
oc … cnoc
och … cróch
od … fód
od … crodh
og … easbog



Deilbheach uath.



an chrainn
an chnaip
an chláir
an bháis
an bhrait
an chatha
an aeir
an bheis, -a
an athara
an fhlaithe, -a
an ghuib
an chruibh
an chnuic
an chróigh, -ich
an fhóid
an chruidh
an easbuig



I Saicsbhéarla



a tree
a knot
a board
death
a cloak
a battle
the sky
rent, cess
a father
a prince
a beak
the wrist
a hill
saffron
a sod
a dowry
a bishop



Sluinneach iol.



crainn, -a
cnaip
cláir
báis
brait
catha



béasa
athracha
flatha
guib
cruibh
cnuic
cróigh, -ich
fóid, -óda
cruidh
easbuig



Deilbheach iol.



na gcrann
na gcnap
na gclár
na mbás
na mbrat
na ngcath



na mbéas
na n-athrach
na bhflath
na ngob
na gcrobh
na gcnoc
na gcróch
na bhfód
na gcrodh
na n-easbog



Déanmha rinne na ndeacht-nduar mbanda.



ab … scuab
abh … ciabh
ac … leac
ach … beach
ad … snáthad
adh … bladh
ag … bréag
agh … sleagh
al … speal
ámh … lámh
lm … salm
an … grian
ar … cliar
as … cluas
at … slat
ath … cliath
es … lés
ib … grib
ibh … treibh
ic … íc
ich … crích
id … móid
idh … buaidh
if … dáif
ig … drig
igh … tráigh
il … súil



na scuaibe
na céibhe
na leice
na beiche
na snáthaide
na blaidhe
na bréige
na sleighe
na speile
na láimhe
na sailme
na gréine
na cléire
na cluaise
na slaite
na cléithe
na léise
na gribe
na treibhe
na híce
na críche
na móide
na buaidhe
na dáife
na drige
na tráighe, -a
na súile, -a



a broom
lock of hair
a flag
a bee
a needle
fame
a lie
a spear
a scythe
a hand
psalm
the sun
a tribe
an ear
a rod
a hurdle
light
mire
a tribe
a cure
an end
a vow
victory
a drink
a dragon
sea-shore
an eye



scuaba
ciabh
leaca
beacha
snáthadaidhe
blaidhe, -a
bréaga
sleagha
spealtacha
lámha
salma
griana
cléir
cluasa
slata
cliatha
léasa
gribe
treabha
ícidhe
críocha
móididhe
buadha
dáfaidhe
drig, -a
tráighe, -a
súla



na scuab
na gciabh
na leac
na mbeach
na snáthad
na mbladh
na mbréag
na sleagh
na speal
na lámh
na salm
na ngrian
na gcliar
na gcluas
na slat
na gcliath
na lés
na ngrib
na dtreibh
na n-íc
na gcrích
na móid
na mbuadh
na ndáif
na ndrig
na dtrágh
na súl


L. 64


Rinne na nduar



Sluinneach uath.



im … céim
imh … fréimh
in … Lundain
in … muin
ip … cóip
ir … ainnir
is … géis
it … cruit
ob … píob
obh … craobh
oc … blonoc
och … cloch
ogh … ógh
ol … tol
om … lom
ón … srón
onn … tonn
or … caor
os … cos
oth … both
ub … crúb
ubh … ubh
uc … muc
uch … luch
ud … dúd
ul … bachal
úl … súl
umh … cnúmh
un … glún
us … drús
cht … umhlacht
dhbh … badhbh
dhg … staidhg
dhm … snaidhm
lbh … sealbh
lc … cuilc
lg … sealg
lm … ailm
lp … speilp
lp … colp
lt … silt
ng … meang
rb … fearb
rbh … dearbh
rc … barc
rd … céard
rg … mairg



Deilbheach uath.



na céime
na fréimhe
Lundan
na muine
na cóipe
na hainnire
na géise
na cruite
na píbe
na craoibhe
na blonoice
na cloiche
na hóighe, -a
na toile
na luime
na sróine
na tuinne
na caoire
na coise
na boithe
na crúibe
na huibhe
na muice
na luiche
na dúide
na bachla, -le
na súile, -a
na cnúimhe, -a
na glúine
na drúise
na humhlachta
na baidhbhe
na staidhge
na snaidhme
na seilbhe, -a
na cuilce
na seilge
ha hailme
na speilpe
na cuilpe
na silte
na meinge
na feirbe
na deirbhe
na bairce
na céirde
na mairge



I Saicsbhéarla



a degree
a root
London
the back
a tribe
a damsel
a swan
a harp
a pipe
a branch
lard
a stone
a virgin
churchyard
nakedness
a nose
a wave
a berry
a foot
a house
a paw
egg
a pig
a mouse
an ear
a staff
an eye
a maggot
a knee
lust
humility
a scold
the gullet
a knot
a herd
a reed
a chase
palm-tree
a girdle
a haunch
a drop
deceit
a pimple
a churn
a ship
a trade
woe



Sluinneach iol.



céimeanna
fréimheacha
Lundain
muinidhe
cóipidhe
ainnearacha
géisidhe
crota
píoba
craobha
blonca
clocha
ógha
tolaidhe
loma
sróna
tonna
caora
cosa
botha
crúba
huibheacha
muca
lucha
dúda
bachla, -le
súile
cnúmha
glúine, -a
drúise, -a
umhlachta
badhbha
stadhga
snadhmanna
sealbha
culca
sealga
ailme
speilpe
colpa
siolta
meanga
fearba
dearbha
barca
céarda
mairgidhe



Deilbheach iol.



na gcéimeann
na bhfréimh
na Lundan
na muin
na gcóip
na n-ainnear
na ngéis
na gcrot
na bpíob
na gcraobh
na mblonoc
na gcloch
na n-ógh
na dtol
na lom
na srón
na dtonn
na gcaor
na gcos
na mboth
na gcrúb
na n-ubh
na muc
na luch
na ndúd
na mbachal
na súl
na gcnúmh
na nglún
na ndrús
na n-umhlacht
na mbadhbh
na staidhg
na snaidhm
na sealbh
na gcuilc
na sealg
na n-ailm
na speilp
na gcolp
na silt
na meang
na bhfearb
na ndearbh
na mbarc
na gcéard
na mairg


L. 65


Rinne na nduar



Sluinneach uath.



rm … cuirm
rn … spairn
rt … cuairt
st … péist
sg … pléasg
st … ceist
ogh … laogh
ól … smól
omh … naomh
on … brón
op … sop
or … glór
os … rós
ubh … subh
ud … lud
ug … grúg
ugh … brugh
ul … cúl
um … cum
umh … clúmh
ur … casúr
us … amhus
us … amhrus
ut … smut
uth … sruth
cht … ucht
dhg … tadhg
lbh … colbh
lc … falc
lg … bolg
lm … colm
lt … alt
nbh … leanbh
nc … sponc
ng … cumhang
nm … ainm
rb … forb
rbh … tarbh
rc … torc
rd … bárd
rg … lorg
rm … arm
rn … corn
rp … corp
rt … beart
sc … riasc



Deilbheach uath.



na cuirme
na spairne
na cuairte, -a
na péiste
na pléisge
na ceiste
an laoigh
an smóil
an naoimh
an bhróin
an tsuip
an ghlóir
an róis, -a
an tsuibh, -a
an luid
an ghrúig
an bhrogha
an chúil
an chuim
an chlúimh, -a
an chasúir
an amhuis
an amhruis
an smuit
an tsrotha
an uicht, -a
an taidhg
an chuilbh
an fhailc
an bhuilg
an chuilm
an ailt
an leinbh
an spuinc
an chumhaing
an anma
an fhuirb
an tairbh
an tuirc
an bháird
an luirg
an airm
an chuirn
an chuirp
an bheirt
an réisc



I Saicsbhéarla



banquet
a quarrel
a visit
a beast
a noise
question
a calf
a blot
a saint
sorrow
a wisp
a voice
a rose
juice
pond
a frown
a town
a waggon
the waist
feather
a hammer
wild beast
a doubt
a snout
a stream
a breast
a poet
a pillar
a flood
a bag
a dove
a joint
a child
a spunge
strength
a name
landlord
a bull
a boar
a poet
a track
a weapon
a tankard
a body
dress
a moor



Sluinneach iol.



cuirmidhe
spairne, -a
cuairte, -a
péiste
pléasga
ceisteanna
laoigh
smóil
naoimh
bróin
suip
glóir
róis, -a
subha
luid
grúig,-a
brogha
cúil, -a
cuim
clúimh -a
casúir
amhuis
amhruis
smuit
srotha
uicht, -a
taidhg
cuilbh
failc
builg
coluim, -a
ailt
leinbh
spuinc
cumhaing
anmanna
fuirb
tairbh
tuirc
báird
luirg
airm
cuirn
cuirp, -a
beirt
réisc



Deilbheach iol.



na gcurm
na spairn
na gcuairt
na bpéist
na bpléasg
na gceist
na laogh
na smól
na naomh
na mbrón
na sop
na nglór
na rós
na subh
na lud
na ngrúg
na mbrugh
na gcúl
na gcum
na gclúmh
na gcasúr
na n-amhus
na n-amhrus
na smut
na sruth
na n-ucht
na dtadhg
na gcolbh
na bhfalc
na mbolg
na gcolm
na n-alt
na leanbh
na sponc
na gcumhang
na n-ainm
na bhforb
na dtarbh
na dtorc
na mbárd
na lorg
na n-arm
na gcorn
na gcorp
na mbeart
na riasc


L. 66


Is easbadh, iolardhas, nó
iomad, a ghnídheas mí-
bheachtach, le a gclaontar
an duar go hathrughadh
soidhbhris, d'á bhfuil cuid
aca so curtha san eagar
so, chum sócamhail do'n
léightheóir.



Dia Dé Dia Dé, Déithe Déathan, God
anam anama anam anama anam, the soul
athair athar, athara athair aithre, -cha athar, a father
bogha bogha bogha boghadha boghadh, bow
et. anró, asna, bain-bainibh, clú, fia, fo, tighearna.



Cathbhaidh Cathbhadha Cathbhaidh Cathbhaidh Cathbhadh
et. Eochaidh, Gofraidh, Lochaidh, Séafraidh, Tuathal.



cloidheamh cloidhim gcloidhimh cloidhmhe gcloidheamh
et. aigneadh, aingeal, caingean, ceapal, easbal, daingean,
deimheas, dorus, fuigheall, geimheal, tabhall, toradh, toirthe.



dlighe dlighe dlighe dlighthe ndlithgheadh
et. baile, bille, croidhe, duine, duibhce, eite, failce.



druí, et ab, mogh draí nó druadh draidh nó draí druíthe no draíthe ndruadh, druid,
et suí, duí, tuí
druim droma druim droma, -nna druim, the back
Eóin Eóin Eóin Eóin Eóin, John



et. Amhlaibh, Ciaruaidh, Conuing, Deochoin, Lughaidh, Fáidh, Féidhlim,
Philip, Rúdhraidhe, Srú, Uaithne; adh, é, í, o.



fíon fíona fíon fíona, -ta fion, wine, et. ól
file fileadh bhfilidh filidhe bhfileadh, a poet



Is dhá dheilbheach atá ag Fiachraigh no Fiachrach, Lughaidh nó Luigh-
dheach, Uisnigh nó Uisneach, rígh, ríogh, a king



gabha gabhann gabha gaibhne, -na gabhan, et. ára
gamhain gamhna gamhain gamhna ngamhain, a calf



et. buachaill, díchioll, doirseóir, figheadóir, friothólamh, léigh-
theóir, muilneóir, seanóir, scríbhneóir, tulach.



greim greama greim greamanna greim, morsel
et. ainm, araigh, feidhm, gleann, maidhm, naidhm, snaidhm.



gul gola gul gola gul, weeping



et. bruth, bul, cath, croth, cnumh, dul, fliodh, gníomh, gníomha is
gniomhartha, gruth, guth; ioth, loch, logh, loth, lugh, lus, roth,
scríobh, sogh, sruth, sugh, súl, túl, i n-‘a’.



iongnadh ionganta iongnaidh ionganta iongnadh



et. adhradh. congnadh, connradh, cosnadh, eadradh, toinscneadh.


L. 67


lá lae ló laethe lá nó laetheadh
meadar meidre meidir meadra meadar



et. ceard crotach, dias, lorg, maghar, meatal, puball, searc,
smólach, sonnach, solus, suanach, tolc.



naoidhe naoidhean naoidhin naoidheana naoidhean, infant
ollamh ollamhan ollamhain ollamhain ollamh, -ain, poet



et. breitheamh, céideamh, cognamh, dáileamh, dúileamh, feicheamh,
feallsamh, foghnamh, oghnamh, oireamh.



rith, rioth reatha rith, rioth reatha rioth, et. cith, crith
ruagadh ruagtha ruagadh ruagtha ruagadh



et. bualadh, codladh, daoradh, déanadh, dúnadh, feannadh, gearradh,
iomadh, leabadh, múnadh, teanga, teannadh.



sioc seaca sioc seaca sioc, frost, ice



et. bior, bliocht, crios, dealbh, dreas, eas, fios, lios, meas, neas,
preas, reacht, sneacht, treas, triosg.



slánughadh slánuighthe slánughadh slánuighthe slánughadh



et. aimsiughadh, ceistiughadh, cruinniughadh, leasughad, míriughadh,
neartughadh, saorughadh, sárughadh, smuainiughadh.



sliabh sléibhe sliabh sléibhte sliabh, foirionn
sliocht sleachta sliocht sleachta sliocht
talamh talmhan talamh, -ain talta, -ain dtalmhan, et. Solamh
ucht ochta ucht ochta ucht, the breast



et. cumacht, druacht, draídhecht, fuacht, locht, ocht, rocht, ughacht.



cró craoi cró craoithe cró, et crú
cú con coin coin con, et onchú
ga gaí ga gaoithe gaoitheadh, dart
ua uí ua uí ua, grandson
téad téid téad téada dtéad, rope



et. céad, déad, méad, meadhg, séad, seóid, tréad.



tinneas tinnis, -a tinnis tinneasa dtinneas, sickness



et. Aodh, Aonghus, Donnchadh, Fearghus, Lugh, Murchadh, Oilioll,
Parthus, ceannas, grádh, iomramh, iongnamh.
Is banda bunadhas na nduar so síos:



aithne aithne aithne aitheanta n-aitheanta
arracht arrachta arraicht arrachta arracht, likeness



et. abhacht, aracht, beannacht, caismeart, cleasacht, ceannsacht,
contracht, cruinneacht, dúthracht, éacht, fulracht, furtacht,
gluasacht, iarlacht, leamhnacht, seargacht, tadhbhacht.



bean mná mnaoi mná mban, woman
bó boin bhoin ba mbó, cow
bró brón mbróin bróinte mbrón, quern
brú bronn mbroinn broinne mbronn, belly
cnú cnó cnaoi cna, cnaí gcnó, nut
cuisle cuisleanna gcuisle cuisleanna gcuisle, vein



et. féithle, faile, giodhra, iara, iatha, leithre.


L. 68


dair darach dair daracha dair, oak



et. bail, cail, cain, cathair, cascair, carcair, cealtar, cairt,
céir, ceis, clais, cluain, cóisir, corcair, cráin, creit, crithir.
crith, cuid, is coda; dáil, fail, deacair, faith, gail, iall,
sail, easgair, eisgir, eochair, fiaghair, ithir, láir, lughair,
mainistir, measar, nathair, obair, saltair, seamair, seilis-
tir, sgal, apair, teamhair; ghní móin móinteach, mónadh,
is móna,; nóin, nóna.



móin mónadh mónaidh, móin móinte móineadh, teine
deoch dighe digh deocha, -an ndeoch, a drink
bliadhain bliadhna bliadhain bliadhna, -ta bliadhain, a year



et. agallamh, beann, cáith, ceathramhain, canamhain, cineamhain,
colann, congbháil, Cruachain, déanamh, deatach, dubhach, eal-
adhain, fághail, fearthainn, gas, fearn, gabhail, gal, misneach,
olann, ráith, riaghail, ríoghain, Samhain, Sionainn, sabháil,
tógbháil.



grian gréine gréin griana, -ta ngrian, the sun



et. bainis, blonac, breach, buidhean, ceard, clann, cluas, dearc,
eigis, eilit, fithcheall, íc, leac, mong, pian.



leaca leacan leacain leicne leacan, cheek



et. almha, ára, dearca, dearna, diagha, easghuma, faocha, fiadha,
glota, guala, gulba, íogha, lacha, lurga, meaca, neasa,
ionga, orca, orda, ragha, rogha, uala, uille, ghníd -n san
deilbheach uathaidh.



léim léime léim léimeanna léim, léimeann



et. béim, coiscéim, dréim, éimh, géim, léim, néimh, oilbhéim, préamh,
réim, sgéimh, taibhéim, toibhéim.



linn linne linn linnte linn, a pool
long luinge luing loingis long, a ship
maidin maidne maidin maidne maidin, morn



et. abhainn, plu. aibhneacha, foirm, losad, sluasad.



máthair máthar, máthara máthair máithreacha máthar, mother



et. bathair, cathair, eathair, láthair, luachair, liosair, tártháil.



mí míosa mís míosa míos, month
muir mara muir mara muir, sea



et. anál, dáimh, dúil, feóil, fuil, flaith, mil, súil, toil, uaim.



rae rae rae raethe raetheadh, moon
et. clí, contae, easca, gnaí, gnaoi, lile, raí, slighe.



namhaid, -a namhad namhaid naimhde namhad, enemy



et. brágha, bráidhe, cara, fiche, nuadha.



ursa ursan ursain ursana ursan, a jamb



et. comhursa, díle, drithle, gulba, lacha, pearsa, réalta.



Alba, Ára, Éire, Mumha, Tailte, alamha; aradha, ceath-
ramha, deibhidhe, ealadha, faíside, foighide, inis, lánamha,
glacaid -n ins an dara sluinneach; .i. Albain, Arainn,
Éirinn, Mumhain, Tailltinn, alamhain, faísidin, inisin, &c.


L. 69


An sluinneach uath. is iolraidh do dhuair fheardha is
bhanda.



Adhaigh, aighthe; adhbha, aidhbhe; am, aman; balsg, balsg-
adha; barún, barúna; bé, béithe; beach, beich; beanchobhar,
beanchobhra; beil, beilghibh; beo, bí; biadh, bídh; bráigh,
bráighde; cáith, cátha; cairt, cairteanna; cara, cáirde;
cathair, caithreacha; ceall, cealla; cear, ceara; cearc,
cearca; cogadh, cogtha; comhladh, comhlaidh; comhrádh,
comhráite; corr, corra; crobh, crobhanna; cróch, cróich;
croiceann, croicne, is croicinn; críostaidhe, críos-
taidhthe; cuimín, cuimínidhe; curadh, curaidhe; dealg,
deilgne; each, eich; éan, éanta; fabhra, fabhraidhe; fail,
failghe d'ór; fairrge, fairrgidhe; feabh, feabhtha; feich,
feighe; fearsad, feirsde; feighe, feighibh; fiach, féich,
fiacha; fiagh, féigh; féith, féitheacha, -eanna; foghlaidhe,
foghlaidhthe; gleadh, gleadhna; gaoth, gaoithe; gé, géanna,
géannaibh, no géidhibh; geas, geis, geasa; gáire, gáiridhe;
gnath no gnó, gnatha no gnóthuidhe; gáir, gártha; greas,
greasa; gréith, gréithre; íc, íce; .i. ícid lusca is trusca;
iath, iathaidhe, -ibh; imleacán, imleacána; inghean, ingheana;
ionga, ingne; in, inidhe; laoch, laochra; láithreach, láithreacha;
lí, líthe, no líghthe; lionn, lionnta; lón, lóinte; luighe,
luighthe; mac, mic, meic; macra, macraidhe; méar,
méara; miach, miaigh, méich; míle, mílte; móid, móide;
múr, múrtha; muchóir, muchóiridhe; néal, neóil, néalta;
neamh, neamhdha: nídh, neithe; nós, nósa; óigh, óighe nó ógha;
omh, omha, .i. nárab omh do mhúr; oighear oighir; olc,
uilc; orlach, orlaighe; et. bogach, coileach, currach,
ualach, is tuilleadh eile i n-ach; póirse, póirsidhe; sailm,
salma; réimheas, réimhse; reithe, reithidhe, reathadha; rón,
róinte; ron, roinne; rón, rónta; ruigh, ruighe, ruigh-.
theacha; ruire, ruirigh, ruireacha; ráith, rátha, ráthanna;
Sagsana, Sagsanaigh; saoi, saoithe: scairt (sgannán),
scairteacha; sgéal, sgéalta; seól, seólta; siúr,
siúire, siúir; sludrach, sludraighe; snigh, snighe nó
sneadh; soighidh, soighthe; speir, speirtheacha; srian, sriain,
srianta; tadhbhas, tadhbhaisteadha; táin, táinte; teo-
ruille, teoruillidhe; teach, tighthe; tionól, tionóla; toisg,
tosga; tráth, trátha, tráthanna; tráigh, trágha; uasal,
uaisle.


L. 70


Na Duairghiollaidhe, annso síos.



Is focal an duairghiolla,
fheidhmeas i n-ionad duair,
le n-a shíor-aithris a chosg;
.i. atá an fear súgach;
sgríobhaidh sé, múinidh sé.



Táid sé ghné nduairghiolladh;
.i. comhursach, carchleitheach,
sealbhach, treóraidheach,
caidridheach, is aimhchríoch-
ach.



Táid sé duairghiollaidhe
comhurs.; .i. méné, túné,
éné, uath.; sinné, ibhné, agus
iadné, iolr.



Aithriseann an carchleitheach
(a nó noch) an fearb nó
an rann a chuaidh roimhe;
.i. tá an fear slán a
mhaireas i bhfad.



Dearbhuigheann an sealbhach
an tseilbh nó an dualgas;
.i. mo lámh, do chos, a cheann,
a ceann, ar n-athair, bhar
máthair, a leabhar 's a
ndubh.



Grinnbhreathnuigheann na
treoraidhigh an nídh d'á
mbaineann; .i. sa, se, so
is sin; úd is súd; .i. is é
sin an fear, is í so an
bhean.



Is caidridhigh cé, cí, cia,
créad, cad is cá, a cuir-
thear ag fiafrughadh ceis-
teanna; .i. cia hé? créad
a ghnídhis? cé bhfuilir?



Ghníthear comaisgeacha de


L. 71


dhuairghiollaíbh trá cuir-
thear iad le siudhuaraibh;
leat, agam.



Is aimhchríochaigh gach is cách,
éigin is eile, neach is cuid
uile, an té, an tí; cé,
cidh is gidh; is iad so a
chuireas a mbrígh i modh an-
chuimreach nó coitcheann.



UIMHIR UATHAIDH.



mé, I; tú, thou or you;
sé, é, he, it; sí, í, she.



Uimhir Uathaidh



s. mé, I
d. mo, mine, or of me
t. damh, for, or to me
l. mé, me
n. ar easbhaidh
f. uaim, from me



Uimhir Uathaidh



s. tú, thou or you
d. do, thine or of thee
t. duit, dhuit, to thee
l. thú, thee
n. thusa, O thou
f. uait, from thee



Uimhir Uathaidh



s. sé, he
d. a, his, its, of his
t. dó, dhó, to him
l. é, him, it
n. ar easbhaidh
f. uadh, from him



Uimhir Uathaidh



s. sí, she
d. a, hers, or of her
t. di, dhi, to, or for her
l. í, her
n. ar easbhaidh
f. uaithe, from her



UIMHIR IOLRAIDH.



sinn, inn, we; sibh, ibh, ye or
you; iad, siad, they.



Uimhir Iolraidh



s. sinn, inn, we
d. ar, our, or of us
t. dúinn, for, or to us
l. sinn, inn, us
n.
f. uainn, from us



Uimhir Iolraidh



s. ibh, sibh, ye or you
d. bhar, bhur, your, or of you
t. díbh, dhaoibh, duibh, to ye or you
l. ibh, sibh, ye or you
n. ibh-se, O ye or you
f. uaibh, from ye or you



Uimhir Iolraidh



s. siad, iad, they
d. a, theirs, or of them
t. dóibh, dhóibh, to them
l. iad, them
n.
f. uatha, from them



Uimhir Iolraidh



s. siad, iad, they
d. a, them, or of them
t. dóibh, dáibh, dhóibh, to them
l. iad, them
n.
f. uatha, from them



Is iad na sealbhaigh, mo, dois
deilbhigh na gcomhursach.


L. 72


NA SEALBHAIGH.



Uimhir Uathaidh
s. mo
d. mo
t. dom
l. mo
n. mo
f. óm



Uimhir Iolraidh
s. ar
d. ar
t. dar
l. ar
n. ar
f. rér



Uimhir Uathaidh
s. do
d. do
t. dot
l. do
n. do
f. ód



Uimhir Iolraidh
s. bhar
d. bhar
t. do bhar
l. bhar
n. bhar
f. ó bhar



Uimhir Uathaidh
is Iolraidh



s. sa, a
d. dha
t. dha
l. a
n. a
f. ó n-a



A, his, its, her, their, theirs — do, thy, thine, your —
mo, my, mine — noch, whom, which — neach, somebody —
cia, cé, who, what, cuid, some — ar, oir — goidé an,
who, ar bith, any, cách, all — gach, every — cáith, where —
cuim, when — cionnus, how — gibé, whatever — so, this —
sin, that — súd, those — úd, that.



Is siad na seilbhigh mo,
do, is a, deilbhigh na bpríomh-
chomhursach thig ó mé, tú, sé,
is sí. So, sin, súd, is úd,
na ceithre treoraidhigh nach
féidir a ndíochlaonadh san
uimhir uathaidh ná iolraidh.
Tá na carchleathacha amhlaidh;
.i. a, noch, nocha: meastar
gur aicile no mionfhocal
diúltach amháin nach; gidh
táid comharthaidhe ar fheidhm,
trá tuigthear go bhfuil
duairghiolla i n-éinfheacht
leis; .i. óir ní bhfuil nídh ar
bith foluighthe nach bhfoill-
seóchthar; tá an carchleith-
each, noch, ins an tsompla
tuigthe, acht níl ráite san
nGaedhilge. Is caidridheacha
na comaisgtheacha so: .i.
coin, cáide, cas, cionad,
cionnus, cidh is cáit: tig
cuin, ó cia is sin; cáide, ó
cia is faide; cas, ó cia is
as; cionad, ó cia is ionad;


L. 73


cada, o cia is fada; créad,
ó cia is rud; cionnus ó cia
is ionnus; cáit, ó cia is áit.
Is i n-ionad “cuin” scríobhthar
le dream cia an uair; uime
sin, ar son cas; cia fhaide
ar son cáide; cia is as ar
son cas; cia ionad ar son
cionad; cia fada ar son
cada; gad é ar son créad;
gad mar ar son cionnus;
gad as ar son cidh; cia áit,
ar son cáit. Is díbheachtach a
curthar na fuidhiordhála
caidridheacha so: gá, cé, &c.
Is iarraidheacha an té, an tí,
cách, gach, cuid, gibé, neach,
is uile.



AN BRIATHAR, &c.



Is focal an briathar a
chialluigheas gníomh nó beith
éinneich ionaid nó nídh; .i.
goiridh an fear, maireann
na daoine, tuitidh an crann,
atáim.



Táid ceithre phrímh-nidhthe le
n-a ngrinnbhreathnughadh i
mbriathraib; eadhón, eagar,
raethe agus soinréim.



Táid ceithre ghné briathar;
.i. gníomhach, fulaingtheach,
neachtrach is eircghiollach.



Is gníomhach nó aistreach
gach briathar a chialluigheas
gníomh; .i. labhraim focal,
sgríobhas an litir.



Is fulaingtheach gach briathar
innseann nídh ar bith ful-
aingthe nó cabhruighthe leis


L. 74


an adhbhar; .i. táim molta,
claoidhtear go minic togha
na bhfear i n-éan-ló.



Is beachtach, neimhbheachtach
nó tearcach gach briathar.



Is neachtrach gach briathar a
chialluigheas beith amháin;
.i., táim, tá sé.



Mar an gcéadna, is neach-
trach nó neamhaistreach gach
briathar, nach dtéideann a
gcumhacht go nídh ar bith
eile, agus dhiúltigheas duar
dhá leanmhain; .i. ruithim,
eitiollaid na héanlaith,
fuamnighidh na mara, béicidh
na leoghain.



Is den neachtrach gach eirc-
ghiollach, no neimhinsgne shíor-
fhuineann mar fhulaing-
theach, agus bhíos gan uimhir
ná pearsa, .i., luaidhtear.



Táid cúig heagair; .i., Ful-
áireamh, Tásgach, Oilbhéim-
each, Iriseachtach nó Conn-
radhach, is Iarraidhtheach nó
Aimhchríochach.



'Sé an t-eagar an fíor-mhodh,
le a n-eagruighthear an
briathar, chum a thoid-bhrígh
a fhoillsiughadh go hiomlán.



Orduigheann nó toirmis-
geann an Fuláireamh; .i.
taruigh, imthigh, grádhuigh é,
úmluigh dhó.



Innseann an Tásgach an
gníomh nó an t-adhbhar i lá-
thair 's go cinnte; .i. táim,
comharluigheann sé, grádh-
uigheann sé.


L. 75


Innseann an Toilbhéimeach
an gníomh nó an t-adhbhar
amhail indéanta nó doi-
dhéanta, cóir nó corr; .i.
ní sgríobhfainn, léighfinn.



Foillsigheann an tIriseach-
tach an nídh go connradhach,
ar son dóigh, mian no
baramhail; agus téidheann
comhnasg roimhe i n-a rádh
nó 'na nod noch amháin
chomharthuigheas é ó'n eagar
thuas; .i. teagasg an t-ain-
bhfiosach, gidheadh dá ndiuil-
teochadh sé go ceanndána.



Innseann an tIarraidhtheach
an nídh go hanchuimseach,
agus go coitcheann gan
áirmheacht do shluinneach
d'uimhir ná do phearsain,
óir níl neachtar aca aige;
.i., léigheadh, labhairt,
codladh, múnadh, dearcadh,
siubhal, cruinniughad, suidhe.



Táid trí raethe; .i. freac-
nairc, eagnairc is fáis-
tineach; .i. suidhim, shuidheas,
suidhfead no suidhfidh mé.



Innseann an freacnairc
an t-am i láthair, agus
foillsigheann an gníomh no
an chríoch ar imtheacht san
tráth chéadna; .i. chím.



Foillsigheann an t-eagnairc
an t-am a chuaidh thort;
.i. chonnairceas an bhó 's an
laogh.



Foillsigheann an fáistineach
an t-am le teacht; .i.
chífead mór-bhuidhean.


L. 76


Tá dhá uimhir ag briathraibh,
uimhir uathaidh is uimhir
iolraidh; .i. ruithim, ruith-
eam.



Táid trí Pearsana ins
gach uimhir; .i. mé, tú, é;
sinn nó inn, ibh no sibh,
is iad.



Táid dhá fhaoidh; .i. gníomh-
arthach is fulaingtheach,
Gníomhach, léigh, cruinnigh.
Fulaingtheach léighthear.
Atá an leabhar léighte.



Táid dhá shoinréim; .i. caol
is leathan; mar atá, léigh
is sgríobh.



Is ó'n mbríathar thigeas an
sruithbhriathar i n-a bhfuil
roinn den mbriathar is
den tládhfhocal i n-éin-
feacht; .i. ag léigheadh,
ag míniughadh, sínte,
sgríobhtha.



Táid trí ghné sruithbhriathar;
.i. freacnairc, eagnairc is
fáistineach.



Ghnídh an sruithbhriathar
gníomhach, trá bhíos in
roimhe, ionad na n-oibriugh-
adh is na nduairbhriathar.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



An Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
(Ar easbhaidh)
bí, be thou
bíodh sé, be he, or let him be



Uimhir iolraidh.
bíom, bíomaid, let us be
bídh, bídhidh, be ye or you
bídís, let them be



bíodh tú, bíodh sé, bíodh sinn, bíodh sibh, bíodh siad.


L. 77


AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



bím, bíim, I am
bír, bíir, thou art.
bídh nó bíonn sé, he is



bíomaoid, we are
bíthí, ye, or you are
bíd, bíid, they are



An Dearbhach.



táim slán, I am healthy
táir slán, you are healthy
tá sé slán, he is healthy



támaoid slán, we are
healthy
táthaoi slán, ye are healthy
táid slán, they are healthy



tá mé slán, tá tú slán, tá sé slán, tá sinn slán, tá sibh
slán, tá siad slán.



Eagnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
do bhíos, bhádhas níos sláine,
I was more healthy
do bhís, bhádhais níos sláine,
you were more healthy
do bhí sé níos sláine, he
was more healthy



Uimhir iolraidh.
do bhíomar níos sláine, we
were more healthy
do bhíobhar níos sláine, ye
were more healthy
do bhíodar níos sláine, they
were more healthy.



bhíos nó bhí mé, bhí tú, bhí sé, bhí sinn, bhí sibh, bhí siad.



Fáistineach.



bead nó biad ro-shlán, I
shall be very healthy
beir nó biair ro-shlán, you
shall be very healthy
beidh nó biaidh sé ro-shlán,
he shall be very healthy



beimíd ro-shlán, we shall be
very healthy
beithí ro-shlán, ye shall be
very healthy
beid ro-shlán, they shall be
very healthy.



beidh nó biaidh mé, biaidh tú, biaidh sé, biaidh sinn, biaidh
sibh, biaidh siad.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH NÓ AN CONNRADHACH.



Freacnairc.
má bhím, should I be
má bhír, should you be
má bhíonn sé, should he be



má bhíom, bhíomaid, should
we be
má bhíthí, should ye be
má bhíd, should they be.


L. 78


má bhím, má bhíonn tú, má bhíonn sé, má bhíonn sinn, má
bhíonn sibh, má bhíonn siad.



do bheidhinn, I could be.
do bheidhtheá, thou or you
could be
do bheidheadh sé, he could be



do bheidhmís, we could be
do bheithí, ye or you could
be
do bheidís, they could be.



AN tIRISEACHTACH NÓ AN CONNRADHACH.



dá mbeidhinn, if I should be
dá mbeidhtheá, if thou or you
should be
dá mbeidheadh sé, if he
should be



dá mbeidhmís, if we should
be
dá mbeithí, nó dá mbeadh
sibh, if ye should be
dá mbeidís, if they should
be



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, a nó do bheith



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR



Freacnairc, ar mbeith — being.
Eagnairc, iar mbeith — having been.
Fáistineach, ar tí bheith — about to be.



AN FULÁIREAMH.
fagh, get; déan, do
abair, say; tar, come
téidh, go



tabhair, give; beir, take
cluin, clois, hear
righ, reach.



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



faghaim, I get
déanaim, ghním, I do
deirim, I say
tigim, I come



téidhim, I go
beirim, I take; bheirim, I give
cluinim, cloisim, I hear
righim, I reach.



Eagnairc.



fuaras, I found
rinneas, I did
dubhras, I said
thainiceas, I came



chuadhas, I went
rugas, I took; thugas, I gave
chualas, I heard
rángas, reached


L. 79


Fáistineach.



gheobhad, I shall get
déanfad, I shall do
déarfad, I shall say
tiocfad, I shall come
rachad, I shall go



bhéarfad, I shall give
béarfad, I shall take
cluinfead,
cloisfead, I shall hear
righfead, I shall reach.



An Fhaoidh Fhulainghtheach.



An Fuláireamh: Cluintear me, thú, é, inn, ibh, iad.



An Tásgach freacnairc: Táim cluinte nó cluintear mé,
thu, é, inn, ibh, iad.



An tEagnairc: Cluineadh mé, thú, é, inn, ibh, iad.



Fáistineach: Cluinfighthear mé, thu, é, inn, ibh, iad.



An Toilbhéimeach: Chluinfidhe mé, thú, é, inn, ibh, iad.



An Connradhach nó an tIriseachtach: Dá gcluinfidhe mé,
thú, é, &c.



An tIar. do chlos; Sruithbh. ag cloistin; iar gclos; ar
tí bheith cloiste.



AN FHAOIDH GHNÍOMHACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
(ar easbhaidh)
cuir, plant or send thou
cuireadh sé, let him plant



Uimhir iolraidh.



cuiream, cuireamaoid, let
us plant
cuiridh, plant ye or let them
plant
cuiridís, let them plant.



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



cuirim, I plant or send
cuirir, thou or you plant
cuiridh sé, he plants
cuireann tú, sé,



cuirimid, we plant
cuirthí, ye or you plant
cuirid, they plant.
sinn, sibh, siad.



Eagnairc.
do chuireas, I planted
do chuiris, you planted
do chuir sé, he planted
do chuir mé, tú, sé,



do chuireamar, we planted
do chuireabhar, ye planted
do chuireadar, they planted
sinn, sibh, siad.


L. 80


Fáistineach.



cuirfead, I shall or will plant
cuirfir, you shall or will
plant
cuirfidh sé, he shall or will,
plant



cuirfeamaid, we shall plant
cuirfidhe, ye or you shall
plant
cuirfid they shall or will
plant



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc



chuirfinn, I would plant
chuirfeá, you would plant
chuirfeadh sé, he would plant



chuirfimis, we would plant
chuirfidhe, ye would plant
chuirfidís, they would plant



An tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá gcuirfinn, if I would
plant
dá gcuirfeá, if you would
would plant
dá gcuirfeadh sé, if he
would plant



dá gcuirfimis, if we would
plant
dá gcuirfidhe, if ye or you
plant
dá gcuirfidís, if they would
plant



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, do chur — to plant.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, ag cur — Planting.
Eagnairc, iar gcur — Having planted.
Fáistineach, ar tí chur — About to plant.
Carchleitheach, an té chuireann nó chuireas — He
who plants.
Caidridheach, ar chuir mé nó ar chuireas? —
Did I plant?
Diúltach, níor chuir mé nó níor chuireas — I did not
plant.
An Fáistineach, an té chuirfidh nó chuirfeas — He
who shall plant.


L. 81


AN FHAOIDH FHULAINGTHEACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



An Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
cuirtear mé, let me be
planted
cuirtear thú, be thou
planted
cuirtear é, let him be
planted



Uimhir iolraidh.
cuirtear inn, let us be
planted
cuirtear ibh, be ye planted
cuirtear iad, let them be
planted



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.
táim curtha, I am planted
táir curtha, you are planted
tá sé curtha, he is planted



támaoid curtha, we are
planted
táthaoi curtha, ye or you
are planted
táid curtha, they are
planted.



cuirthear mé, thú, é, inn, ibh, iad.



Eagnairc.



do cuireadh mé, I was
planted
do cuireadh thú, you were
planted
do cuireadh é, he was
planted.



do cuireadh sinn, we were
planted
do cuireadh sibh, ye were
planted
do cuireadh sibh, ye were
planted



Fáistineach.
cuirfidhthear mé, I shall be
planted
cuirfidhthear thú, you shall
be planted
cuirfidhthear é, he shall be
planted



cuirfidhthear sinn, we shall
be planted
cuirfidhthear sibh, ye shall
be planted
cuirfidhthear iad, they shall
be planted


L. 82


AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



do cuirfidhe mé, I would
be planted
do cuirfidhe thú, you would
be planted
do cuirfidhe é, he would be
planted



do cuirfidhe sinn, we would
be planted
do cuirfidhe sibh, ye would
be planted
do cuirfidhe iad, they
would be planted



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá gcuirfidhe mé, if I would
be planted
dá gcuirfidhe thú, if you
would be planted
dá gcuirfidhe é, if he would
be planted



dá gcuirfidhe sinn, if we
would be planted
dá gcuirfidhe sibh, if ye
would be planted
dá gcuirfidhe iad, if they
would be planted



AN tIARRAIDHEACH.



Freacnairc, do bheith churtha — To be planted.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, curtha — Planted.
Eagnairc, iar mbeith curtha — Being planted.
Fáistineach, air tí bheith curtha — About to
be planted.
Carchleitheach, an té chuireas — He who plants.
Caidridheach, ar chuireas? — Did I plant?
Diúltach, níor chuireas — I did not plant.
Fáistineach, an té chuirfeas — He who will plant.



AN t-EAGAR DÉIDHEANACH.
AN FHAOIDH GHNÍOMHACH.
AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.



(ar easbhaidh)
dún, shut thou
dúnadh sé, let him shut



Uimhir iolraidh.



dúnadh sinn, let us shut
dúnadh sibh, let ye or you
shut
dúnadh siad, let them shut.


L. 83


AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



dúnaim, I shut
dúnann tú, you shut
dúnann sé, he shuts



dúnann sinn, we shut
dúnann sibh, ye or you shut
dúnann siad, they shut



Eagnairc.
do dhún mé, I have shut
do dhún tú, you have shut
do dhún sé, he shut do



do dhún sinn, we have shut
do dhún sibh, ye or you shut
dhún siad, they have
shut



Fáistineach.



dúnfaidh mé, I shall shut
dúnfaidh tú, you shall shut
dúnfaidh sé, he shall shut



dúnfaidh sinn, we shall shut
dúnfaidh sibh, ye shall shut
dúnfaidh siad, they shall
shut



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



do dhúnfainn, I would shut
do dhúnfá, you would shut
do dhúnfadh sé, he would
shut



do dhúnfadh sinn, we would
shut
do dhúnfadh sibh, ye would
shut
do dhúnfadh siad, they
would shut



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



dá ndúnfainn, if I should
shut
dá ndúnfá thú, if ye should
shut
dá ndúnfadh sé, if he should
shut



dá ndúnfadh sinn, if we
should shut
dá ndúnfadh sibh, if ye
should shut
dá ndúnfadh siad, if they
should shut



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, a dhúnadh,
To shut.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, ag dúnadh, — Shutting.



Eagnairc, iar ndúnadh, — Having shut.



Fáistineach, ar tí dhúnadh, — About to shut.


L. 84


AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR
ar l.



Carchleitheach, An té dhúnann nó dhúnas — He who
shuts.



Caidridheach, Ar dhúnas, nó ar dhún mé? — Did
I shut?



Diúltach, níor dhúnas nó níor dhún mé — I did not
shut.



Freacnairc, an tí dhúnfadh nó dhúnfas, He who shall shut.



AN FHAOIDH FHULAINGTHEACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.



bíodh mé dúnta, let me be
shut
bíodh tú dúnta, be thou shut
bíodh sé dúnta, let him be
shut



Uimhir iolraidh.



bíodh sinn dúnta, be we
shut
bíodh sibh dúnta, be ye shut
bíodh siad dúnta, let them
be shut.



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



tá mé dúnta, I am shut
tá tú dúnta, you are shut
tá sé dúnta, he is shut



tá sinn dúnta, we are shut
tá sibh dúnta, ye are shut
tá siad dúnta, they are shut.



Eagnairc.
bhí mé dúnta, I was shut
bhí tú dúnta, you were shut
bhí sé dúnta, he was shut



bhí sinn dúnta, we were shut
bhí sibh dúnta, ye were shut
bhí siad dúnta, they were
shut.



Fáistineach.



béidh mé dúnta, I shall be
shut
béidh tú dúnta, you shall be
shut
béidh sé dúnta, he shall be
shut.



béidh sinn dúnta, we shall
be shut
béidh sibh dúnta, ye shall be
shut
béidh siad dúnta, they shall
be shut.


L. 85


AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



bheidhinn-se dúnta, I would
be shut
bheidhtheá-sa dúnta, you
would be shut
bheidheadh seisean dúnta, he
would be shut.



bheith sinne dúnta, we would
be shut
bheith sibh-se dúnta, ye would
be shut
he bheith siad-san dúnta, they
would be shut.



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá mbeidhinn dúnta, if I
would be shut
dá mbeidhtheá dúnta, if you
would be shut
dá mbeith sé dúnta, if he
would be shut



dá mbeith sinn dúnta, if we
would be shut
dá mbeith sibh dúnta, if ye
would be shut
dá mbeith siad dúnta, if
they would be shut.



AN tIARRAIDHEACH.



Freacnairc, do bheith dúnta — To be shut.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, dúnta — Shut.



Eagnairc, iar mbeith dúnta — Having been
shut.



Fáistineach, air tí a bheith dúnta — About to
be shut.



AN FHAOIDH GHNÍOMHACH.



AN FHULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
(ar easbhaidh)
éist, hear thou
éisteadh sé, hear thou or let
him hear



Uimhir iolraidh.
éisteam, let us hear
éistidh, hear ye or you
éistidís, let them hear.



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.
éistim, I hear
éistir, you hear
éistidh sé, he hears




éistimid, we hear
éistí, ye or you hear
éistid, they hear.


L. 86


Eagnairc.



d'éisteas, I heard
d'éistis, you heard
d'éist sé, he heard



d'éisteamar, we heard
d'éisteabhar, ye or you heard
d'éisteadar, they heard.



Fáistineach.



éistfead, I shall hear
éistfir, you shall hear
éistfidh sé he shall hear



éistfeamaid, we shall hear
éistfidhe, ye shall hear
éistfid, they shall hear.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



d'éistfinn, I would hear
d'éistfeá, you would hear
d'éistfeadh sé, he would
hear



d'éistfeamais, we would
hear
d'éistfidhe, ye would hear
d'éistfidís, they would hear.



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá n-éistfinn, if I should
hear
dá n-éistfeá, if ye should
hear
dá n-éistfeadh sé, if he
should hear



dá n-éistfeamais, if we
should hear
dá n-éistfidhe. if ye or you
should hear
dá n-éistfidís, if they
should hear



AN tIARRAIDHEACH.



Freacnairc, d'éisteacht — To hear.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, ag éisteacht — Hearing.



Eagnairc, iar n-éisteacht — Having heard.



Fáistineach, ar tí éisteacht — About to hear.



Carchleitheac, an té éisteas — He who hears.



Caidridheach, ar éisteas? — Did I hear?



Diúltach, níor éisteas — I did not hear.



Fáistineach, an té éistfeas, He who shall hear.


L. 87


AN FHAOIDH FHULAINGTHEACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
éistear mé, let me be
heard
éirtear thú, be thou heard
éistear é, let him be
heard.



Uimhir iolraidh.
éistear sinn, let us be
heard
eistear sibh, be ye heard
éistear iad, let them be
heard



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



táim éiste, I am heard
táir éiste, you are heard
tá sé éiste, he is heard




támaid éiste, we are heard
táthaoi éiste, ye are heard
táid éiste, they are heard.



eistear mé, thú, é, sinn, sibh, iad.



Eagnairc.



do héisteadh mé, I was
heard
do héisteadh thú, you were
heard
do héisteadh é, he was
heard.



do héisteadh sinn, we were
heard
do héisteadh sibh, ye were
heard
do héisteadh iad, they were
heard



Fáistineach.



éistfidhear mé, I shall be
heard
éistfidhear thú, you shall
be heard
éistfidhear é, he shall be
heard



éistfidhear sinn, we shall
be heard
éistfidhear sibh, ye or you
shall be heard
éistfidhear iad, they shall
be heard.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



do héistfidhe mé, I would
be heard
do héistfidhe thú, you would
be heard
do héistfidhe é, he would
be heard.



do héistfidhe sinn, we would
be heard
do héistfidhe sibh, ye would
be heard
do héistfidhe iad, they
would be heard




L. 88


AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá n-éistfidhe mé, if I
would be heard
dá n-éistfidhe thú, if you
would be heard
dá n-éistfidhe é, if he
would be heard.



dá n-éistfidhe sinn, if we
would be heard
dá n-éistfidhe sibh, if ye
would be heard
dá n-éistfidhe iad, if they
would be heard



AN tIARRAIDHEACH.



Freacnairc, do bheith éiste — To be heard.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, éiste — Heard.



Eagnairc, iar mbeith éiste — Being heard.



Fáistineach, a bheith éiste — About to be
heard.



AN FHAOIDH GNÍOMHACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
(ar easbhaidh)
fill, turn thou
filleadh sé, let him turn



Uimhir iolraidh.
filleamaid, let us turn
fillidh, turn ye
fillidís, let them turn.



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



fillim, I turn
fillir, you turn
fillidh sé, he turns



fillimid, we turn
filltí, ye or you turn
fillid, they turn.



Eagnairc.



d'fhilleas, I turned
d'fhillis, you turned
d'fhill sé, he turned



d'fhilleamar, we turned
d'fhilleabhar, ye turned
d'fhilleadar, they turned.



Fáistineach.



fillfead, I shall turn
fillfir, you shall turn
fillfidh sé, he shall turn



fillfimid, we shall turn
fillfidhe, ye shall turn
fillfid, they shall turn.


L. 89


AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



d'fhillfinn, I would turn
d'fhillfeá, you would turn
d'fhillfeadh sé, he would
turn



d'fhillfimis, we would turn
d'fhillfidhe, ye would turn
d'fhillfidís, they would turn



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá bhfillfinn, if I should
turn
dá bhfillfeá, if you should
turn
dá bhfillfeadh sé, if he
should turn



dá bhfillfeamais, if we
should turn
dá bhfillfidhe, if ye should
turn
dá bhfillfidís, if they should
turn.



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, d'fhilleadh —
To turn.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, ag filleadh — returning.



Eagnairc, iar bhfilleadh — having turned.



Fáistineach, ar tí filleadh — about to turn.



Carchleitheach, is é fhilleas — it is he who turns.



Caidridheach, ar fhilleas? — Did I turn?



Diúltach, níor fhilleas — I did not turn.



AN FHAOIDH FHULAINGTHEACH.



AN FHULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
filltear mé, let me be
turned



filltear thú, let you be
turned filltear é, let him be
turned.



Uimhir iolraidh.



filltear inn, let us be
turned
filltear ibh, be ye turned
filltear iad, let them be
turned


L. 90


AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



táim fillte, I am turned
táir fillte, you are turned
tá sé fillte, he is turned



támaoid fillte, we are
turned
táthaoi fillte, ye are turned
táid fillte, they are turned.
Filltear mé, thú, é; inn, ibh, iad.



Eagnairc.
do filleadh mé, I was
turned
do filleadh thú, you were
turned
do filleadh é, he was turned



do filleadh inn, we were
turned
do filleadh ibh, ye were
turned
do filleadh iad, they were
turned.



Fáistineach.
fillfighthear mé, I shall be
turned
fillfighthear thú, you shall
be turned
fillfighthear é, he shall be
turned



fillfighthear inn, we shall be
turned
fillfighthear ibh, ye shall be
turned
fillfighthear iad, they shall
be turned.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.
do fillfidhe mé, I would be
turned
do fillfidhe thú, you would
turned
do fillfidhe é, he would be
turned



do fillfidhe inn, we would
be turned
do fillfidhe ibh, ye would be
be turned
do fillfidhe iad, they would
be turned.



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.
dá bhfillfidhe mé, if I should
be turned
dá bhfillfidhe thú, if you
should be turned
dá bhfillfidhe é, if he should
be turned



dá bhfillfidhe inn, if we
should be turned
dá bhfillfidhe ibh, if ye should
be turned
dá bhfillfidhe iad, if they
should be turned.


L. 91


AN tIARRAIDHEACH.
Freacnairc, do bheith fillte — To be
turned.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, fillte — Turned.



Eagnairc, iar mbeith fillte — Having been
turned.



Fáistineach, chum a bheith fillte — About to
be turned.



AN BRIATHAR GNÍOMHACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Uimhir uathaidh.
(ar easbhaidh)
geall, promise thou
gealladh sé, let him promise



Uimhir iolraidh.
geallam, let us promise
geallaidh, let ye promise
geallaidís, let them pro-
mise.



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



geallaim, I promise
geallair, thou or you pro-
mise
geallaidh sé, he promises



geallamaoid, we promise
gealltaoi, ye or you pro-
mise
geallaid, they promise



Eagnairc.



do gheallas, I promised
do gheallais, you promised
do gheall sé, he promised



do gheallamar, we promised
do gheallabhar, ye promised
do ghealladar, they pro-
mised.



Fáistineach.



geallfad, I shall promise
geallfair, you shall pro-
mise
geallfaidh sé, he shall pro-
mise



geallfamaid, we shall pro-
mise
geallfaidhe, ye shall pro-
mise
geallfaid, they shall pro-
mise


L. 92


AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



do gheallfainn, I may pro-
mise
do gheallfá, you may pro-
mise
do gheallfadh sé, he may
promise



do gheallfamais, we may
promise
do gheallfaidhe, ye may pro-
mise
do gheallfadaís, they may
promise



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá ngeallfainn, should I
promise
dá ngeallfa, should you
promise
dá ngeallfadh sé, should
he promise



dá ngeallfamais, should
we promise
dá ngeallfaidhe, should ye
promise
dá ngeallfadais, should
they promise.



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, do ghealladh —
To promise.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, ag gealladh — Promising.



Eagnairc, iar ngealladh — Having promised.



Fáistineach, ar tí gealladh — About to
promise.



Chum a ghealladh, In order to promise.



Cairchleitheach, an té gheallas — He who promises.



Caidridheach, ar gheallas? — Did I promise?



Diúltach, níor gheallas — I did not promise.



AN BRIATHAR FULAINGTHEACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Uimhir uathaidh.
gealltar mé, let me be
promised
gealltar thú, be thou
promised
gealltar é, let him be
promised.



Uimhir iolraidh.
gealltar inn, let us be
promised
gealltar ibh, be ye pro-
mised
gealltar iad, let, them be
promised


L. 93


AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc



táim geallta, I am pro-
mised
táir geallta, you are
promised
tá sé geallta, he is
promised.



támaid geallta, we are
promised
táthaoi geallta, ye are
promised
táid geallta, they are
promised



gealltar mé, thú, é, inn, sibh, iad.



Eagnairc.



gealladh mé, I was pro-
mised
gealladh thú, you were
promised
gealladh é, he was pro-
mised



gealladh sinn, we were
promised
gealladh sibh, ye were
promised
gealladh iad, they were
promised.



Fáistineach.



geallfaidhthear mé, I shall
be promised
geallfaidhthear thú, you shall
be promised
geallfaidhthear é, he shall
be promised



geallfaidhthear inn, we shall
be promised
geallfaidhthear sibh, ye
shall be promised
geallfaidhthear iad, they
shall be promised.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



do geallfaidhe mé, I might
be promised
do geallfaidhe thú, you
might be promised
do geallfaidhe é, he might
be promised



do geallfaidhe sinn, we
might be promised
do geallfaidhe sibh, ye
might be promised
do geallfaidhe iad, they
might be promised.


L. 94


AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá mbeidhinn geallta, If I
should be promised



dá mbeidhtheá geallta, if
you should be promised



dá mbeidheadh nó mbeith sé
geallta, if he should be
promised



dá ngeallfaidhe mé, thú,
é.



dá mbeidheadh nó mbeith
sinn geallta if we should
be promised



dá mbeidheadh sibh geallta,
if ye should be pro-
mised



dá mbeidheadh siad geallta,
if they should be pro-
mised.



dá ngeallfaidhe sinn, sibh,
iad.



AN tIARRAIDHEACH.



Freacnairc, do bheith geallta — To be
promised.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, geallta — promised.



Eagnairc, iar mbeith geallta — being pro-
mised.



Fáistineach, ar tí bheith geallta — about to
be promised.



AN FHAOIDH GHNÍOMHACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.



(ar easbhaidh)
meas, judge thou
measadh sé, let him judge



Uimhir iolraidh.
measam, let us judge
measaidh, judge ye or you
measaidís, let them judge.



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



measaim, I judge
measair, thou judgest
measaidh sé, he judges



measamaid, we judge
meastaoi, ye or you judge
measaid, they judge.



measaim, measann tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.


L. 95


Eagnairc.



do mheasas, I judged
do mheasais, thou judged
do mheas sé, he judged



do mheasamar, we judged
do mheasabhar, ye or you
judge
do mheasadar, they judged



do mheas mé, tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.



Fáistineach.



measfad, I shall or will
judge
measfair, you shall or will
judge
measfaidh sé, he shall or
will judge



measfam, we shall or will
judge
measfaidhe, ye or you will
judge
measfaid, they shall judge.



measfaidh mé, tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



mheasfainn, I may judge
mheasfá, you may judge
mheasfadh sé, he may judge



mheasfamaois, we may
judge.
mheasfaidhe, ye may judge
mheasfaidís, they may judge



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá measfainn, if I might
judge
dá measfá, if you might
judge
dá measfadh sé, if he might
judge



dá measfamais, if we
might judge
dá measfaidhe, if ye might
judge
dá measfaidís, if they
might judge.



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, a mheas — To
judge.


L. 96


AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, ag meas — judging.



Eagnairc, iar meas — having judged.



Fáistineach, ar tí mheas — about to judge.



Carchleitheach, is é mhéasas — it is he who judges.



Caidridheach, ar mheasas — did I judge.



Diúltach, níor mheasas — I did not judge.



Fáistineach, an té mheasfas, he who shall judge.



AN FHAOIDH FHULAINGTHEAC



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Uimhir uathaidh.



meastar mé, let me be
judged
meastar thú, be thou judged
meastar é, let him be
judged.



Uimhir iolraidh.
meastar inn, let us be
judged
meastar ibh, be ye judged
meastar iad, let them be
judged



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



táim measta, I am judged
táir measta, you are
judged
tá sé measta, he is judged



támaid measta, we are
judged
táthaoi measta, ye are
judged
táid measta, they are
judged.



meastar mé, thú, é, inn, ibh, iad.



Eagnairc.



measadh mé, I was judged
measadh thú, you were
judged
measadh é, he was judged



measadh sinn, we were
judged
measadh sibh, ye were judged
measadh iad, they were
judged



Fáistineach.



Uimhir uathaidh.



measfaidhear, nó measfaidhthear mé, I shall be judged
measfaidhear thú, you shall or will be judged
measfaidhear é, he shall or will be judged.


L. 97


Uimhir iolraidh.
measfaidhear inn, we shall or will be judged
measfaidhear ibh, ye or you shall or will be judged
measfaidhear iad, they shall or will be judged.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



do measfaidhe mé, I might
be judged
do measfaidhe thú, you
might be judged
do measfaidhe é, he might
be judged



do measfaidhe sinn, we
might be judged
do measfaidhe sibh, ye might
be judged
do measfaidhe iad, they
might be judged.



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



dá measfaidhe mé, if I
should be judged
dá measfaidhe thú, if you
should be judged
dá measfaidhe é, if he
should be judged.



dá measfaidhe sinn, if we
should be judged
dá measfaidhe sibh, if ye
should be judged
dá measfaidhe iad, if they
should be judged



AN tIARRAIDHEACH.



Freacnairc, do bheith measta — To be
judged.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, measta, judged.



Eagnairc, iar mbeith measta — being judged.



Fáistineach, air tí bheith measta — about to
be judged.



AN FHAOIDH GHNÍOMHACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.
(ar easbhaidh)
orduigh, order thou
orduigheadh sé, let him order



Uimhir iolraidh.
orduighmid, let us order
orduighidh, order ye
orduighdís, let them order.


L. 98


AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



orduighim, I order
orduighir, you order
orduighidh sé, he orders



orduighmid, we order
orduighthí, ye or you order
orduighid, they order.



orduighim, orduigheann tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.



Eagnairc.



d'orduigheas, I ordered
d'orduighis, you ordered
d'orduigh sé, he ordered



d'orduigheamair, we ordered
d'orduigheabhair, you or-
dered
d'orduigheadar, they or-
dered



d'orduigh mé, tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.



Fáistineach.



oirdeochad, I shall order
oirdeochair, you shall order
oirdeochaidh sé, he shall
order.



oirdeochamaoid, we shall
order
oirdeochaidhe, ye or you
shall order
oirdeochaidís, they shall
order



ordóchaidh mé, tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



d'oirdeochainn, I would order
d'oirdeochá, you would order
d'oirdeochadh sé, he would order



d'oirdeochamaois
d'oirdeochaidhe
d'oirdeochaidís



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



Freacnairc.



dá n-oirdeochainn, if I would
dá n-oirdeochá, if you would
dá n-oirdeochadh, if he would



dá n-oirdeochamaois
dá n-oirdeochaidhe
dá n-oirdeochaidís


L. 99


AN tIARRAIDHEACH, d'ordughadh,
To order.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, ag ordughadh — ordering.



Eagnairc, iar n-ordughadh — having ordered.



Fáistineach, ar tí ordughadh — about to order.



Carchleitheach, is é orduigheas — he who orders.



Caidridheach, ar orduigheas? — did I order?



Diúltach, níor orduigheas — I did not order.



Fáistineach, an té oirdeochas, he who shall order.



AN FHAOIDH FHULAINGTHEACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.



orduighthear mé, let me be
ordered
orduighthear thú, be thou
ordered
orduighthear é, let him be
ordered.



Uimhir iolraidh.
orduighthear sinn, let us be
ordered
orduighthear sibh, be ye
ordered
orduighthear iad, let them
be ordered



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



táim orduighthe, I am
ordered
táir orduighthe, you are
ordered
tá sé orduighthe, he is
ordered



támaid orduighthe, we are
ordered
táthaí orduighthe, ye are
ordered
táid orduighthe, they are
ordered



orduighthear mé, tú, é, sinn, sibh, iad.


L. 100


Eagnairc.



do horduigheadh mé, I was
ordered
do horduigheadh thú, you
were ordered
do horduigheadh é, he was
ordered



do horduigheadh sinn, we
were ordered
do horduigheadh sibh, ye
were ordered
do horduigheadh iad, they
were ordered.



Fáistineach.



oirdeochar mé, I shall be
ordered
oirdeochar thú, you shall be
ordered
oirdeochar é, he shall be
ordered



oirdeochar sinn, we shall be
ordered
oirdeochar sibh, ye shall be
ordered
oirdeochar iad, they shall
be ordered.



An TOILBHÉIMEACH.



Freacnairc.



do hoirdeochaidhe mé, I
would be ordered
do hoirdeochaidhe thú, you
would be ordered
do hoirdeochaidhe é, he
would be ordered.



do hoirdeochaidhe inn, we
would be ordered
de hoirdeochaidhe ibh, ye
would be ordered
do hoirdeochaidhe iad, they
would be ordered



AN tIRISEACHTACH.



dá n-oirdheochaidhe mé, if I
would be ordered
dá n-oirdeochaidhe thú, if
you would be ordered
dá n-oirdeochaidhe é, if he
would be ordered



dá n-oirdeochaidhe sinn, if
we would be ordered
dá n-oirdeochaidhe sibh, if
ye would be ordered
dá n-oirdeochaidhe iad, if
they would be ordered.



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, do bheith orduighthe —
To be ordered.


L. 101


AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, orduighthe — Ordered.



Eagnairc, iar mbeith orduighthe — being
ordered.



Fáistineach, a bheith orduighthe — about
to be ordered.



SOINRÉIM AN BHRIATHAIR AIMHBHEACHT tar nó tig.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Freacnairc.



Uimhir uathaidh.



(ar easbhaidh)
tar nó tig, come thou
taradh nó tigeadh sé, let
him come



Uimhir iolraidh.



tagam, taram nó tigea-
maoid
tagaidh, taraidh nó tigidh
tagaidís, taradaís nó tigi-
dís.



AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.
tigim, I come
tigir, thou or you come
tig sé, he comes
tigim, tig nó tigeann tú,
sé,



tigimid, we come
tigthí, ye or you come
tigid, they come
sinn, sibh, siad.



Eagnairc.



thánag, I came
thángais, you came
thainic sé, he came



thainiceamar, we came
thainiceabhar, ye came
thainiceadar, they came.



thainic mé, tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.



Fáistineach.



tiocfad, I shall come
tiocfair, you shall come
tiocfaidh sé, he shall come



tiocfamaid, we shall come
tiocfaidhe, ye shall come
tiocfaidh, they shall come.



tiocfaidh mé, tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.


L. 102


AN TOILBHÉIMEACH.



thiocfainn, I may come
thiocfá, you may come
thiocfadh sé, he may come



thiocfamaois, we may come
thiocfaidhe, ye may come
thiocfadaís, they may come.



thiochfadh tú, sé, sinn, sibh, siad.



An tIRISEACHTACH.



dá dtiocfainn, if I should
come
dá dtiocfá, if you should
come
dá dtiocfadh sé, if he
should come



dá dtiocfamaois, if we
should come
dá dtiocfaidhe, if ye should
come
dá dtiocfadaís, if they
should come



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, ag theacht —
to come.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR.



Freacnairc, ag teacht — coming.



Eagnairc, iar dteacht — came.



Fáistineach, ar tí theacht — about to come.



Carchleitheach, an té thigeas — he who comes.



Caidridheach, an dtángas? — did I come?



Diúltach, ní thainiceas — I did not come.



Fáistineach, an té thiocfas — he who shall come.



AN FHAOIDH GHNÍOMHACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH.



Uimhir uathaidh.



(ar easbhaidh)
féach, see thou
féachadh sé, see he, or let him see



Uimhir iolraidh.



féacham, let us see
féachaidh, see ye or you
féachaidís, let them see.


L. 103


AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc.



chím, I see
chír, you see
chí sé, he sees



chímid, we see
chíthí, ye or you see
chíd, they see



Eagnairc.



do chonnairceas, I saw
do chonnaircis, you saw
do chonnairc sé, he saw.



chonairceamar, we saw
chonairceabhar, ye saw
chonairceadar, they saw



Fáistineach.
chífead, I shall see
chífir, you shall see
chífidh sé, he shall see



chífeamaid, we shall see
chífidhe, ye or you shall see
chífid, they shall see



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH, do chífinn —
I would see.



An tIRISEACHTACH, dá bhfeicfinn —
if I should see.



AN tIARRAIDHEACH, d'fhéachain —
To see.



AN SRUITHBHRIATHAR



Freacnairc, ag féachain — seeing.



Eagnairc, iar bhféachain — having seen.



Fáistineach, ar tí féachain — about to see.



Carchleitheach, an té chífeas — he who sees.



Caidridheach, an bhfacas? — did I see?



Diúltach, ní fhachas — I did not see.



AN FHAOIDH FHULAINGTHEACH.



AN FULÁIREAMH, féachtar mé — let me
be seen &c.


L. 104


AN TÁSGACH.



Freacnairc, chíthear mé — I am seen, &c.



Eagnairc, connairceadh mé — I had been
seen, &c.



Fáistineac, chífighthear mé — I shall be
seen, &c.



AN TOILBHÉIMEACH, feicfidhe mé — I would
be seen, &c.



An tIRISEACHTACH, dá bhfeicfidhe mé —
should I be seen, &c.



An tIARRAIDHEACH, do bheith feicthe —
to be seen.



Carchleitheach, An té facthas — he who was seen.



Caidridheach, An bhfacthas é? — was he seen?



Diúltach, níor facthas mé — I was not seen.



SRUITHBHRIATHRA GNÍOMHARTHACHA.



Ag achtadh, enacting, de-
creeing, ordering
áiteadh, placing, settling
árdughadh, exalting, or ex-
tolling
argain, robbing, or spoiling
at, swelling, or increasing
bacadh, stopping, delaying
bánadh, wasting, plundering
báthadh, steeping, drowning
bogadh, softening, loosening
béiceadh, roaring, resound-
ing
brodadh, exciting, rousing
bualadh, beating, threshing
buadhadh, overcoming, win-
ning
cáineadh, taxing, scolding
caitheamh, wasting, spending
camadh, wrying, or bending
casadh, twisting, or winding
claonadh, bowing, bending
ceadadh, allowing, permit-
ing
cneadghail, sighing, griev-
ing
déanamh, doing, performing
dearbhadh, fixing on, assur-
ing
dingeadh, pressing, pushing


L. 105


éigheamh, roaring, shouting
fághail, getting. procuring
fásgadh, squeezing, crushing
faire, watching, guarding
feannadh flaying, stripping
féachaint, beholding, seeing
fliuchadh, wetting, drenching
gabháil, taking, seizing
gealladh, promising, vowing
gárthaíl, shouting, bawling
géilleadh, obeying, submit-
ting
glacadh, taking, perceiving
graifneadh, signing, mark-
ing
iarraidh, asking, seeking
leaghadh, melting, softening
léigheadh, reading, perusing
lingeadh, leaping, bouncing
losgadh, burning, singeing
líonadh, filling, glutting
lomadh, shearing, cutting
lúbadh, bending, bowing
marbhadh, killing, slaying
maoidheamh, boasting, grudg-
ing
mealladh, deceiving, cheat-
ing
milleadh, spoiling, marring
moladh, praising, applauding
múnadh, teaching, guiding
nasgadh, tying, joining
pianadh, tormenting, paining
placadh, eating, chewing
pléasgadh, cracking, break-
ing
plúchadh, choking, smother-
ing
pógadh, kissing, saluting
polladh, piercing, boring
pronnadh, bestowing, giving
righeadh, reaching, extending
ruagadh, routing, pursuing
rúsgadh, smiting, beating
sailleadh, salting, curing
sáthadh, thrusting, stabbing
scathadh, lopping, cutting
scaoileadh, loosening, un-
binding
seóladh, directing, teaching
sgaradh, parting, dividing
sgoilteadh, cleaving, cutting
sgríobhadh, writing, inditing
síneadh, stretching, extend-
ing
sméideadh, reckoning,
counting.
téitheadh, warming, heating
toghadh, choosing, picking
tolladh, boring piercing
treabhadh, ploughing, tilling
tuaradh, presaging, bleach-
ing.
trodadh, fighting, striving
uaillfeart, roaring, groan-
ing.



SRUITHBHRIATHRA FULAINGTHEACHA.



abuighthe, ripened, swelled
admhuighthe, confessed, told
adhmholta, praised, extolled



aithnighthe, known, perceived
altuighthe, praised, glorified
árduighthe, raised, exalted


L. 106


beannuighthe, blessed, praised
beathuighthe, fed, fattened
beodhuighthe, animated, en-
livened
brosduighthe, excited, stirred
coigilte, spared, preserved
calmuighthe, strengthened
casgartha, killed, slaugh-
tered
ceangailte, joined, tied
céadlongtha, fed, refreshed,
breakfasted, nourished
cimchreachta, pillaged,
robbed
cluathaighthe, hunted, chased
comulta, rubbed, scratched
dathuighthe, dyed, coloured
dealbhuighthe, arranged,
framed
dealuighthe, separated,
weaned
diomalta, wasted, lavished
díosguighthe, gnashed,
shivered
eagluighthe, affrighted, awed
éilighthe, claimed, accused
fadaidhthe, kindled, excited
fáiltighthe, saluted, wel-
comed
fuathuighthe, hated, abhorred
gealuighthe, whitened,
bleached
geimhlighthe, confined,
géirighthe, whetted,
sharpened
géaruighthe, soured, em-
bittered
gnáthuighthe, practised, used
gortuighthe, hurt, wounded
gortuighthe, starved with
greamuighthe, held, fastened
greantuighthe, carved, cut
imthighthe, gone, emigrated
innsighthe, told, related,
innlighthe, marked, aimed at
íslighthe, degraded, lowered
labhartha, told, uttered
laguighthe, weakened, dim-
inished
léasuighthe, blistered, beat
leasuighthe, improved, man-
ured
lomartha, clipped, sheared
machtnuighthe, observed,
marked
malartha, exchanged, bar-
tered
malluighthe, cursed, con-
demned
martruighthe, maimed, lamed
méaduighthe, enlarged, in-
creased
meatuighthe, dismayed, awed
mínighthe, explained, inter-
preted, expounded, plain
mughartha, murdered, killed
nochtuighthe, naked, bare
ollmhuighthe, prepared, ready
orduighthe, ordered, ap-
pointed
orluighthe, cut in pieces
ornuighthe, adorned, decked
osnuighthe, groaned, la-
mented
partuighthe, united, joined
ríghnighthe, stiffened, tough
roighnighthe, chosen, elect


L. 107


sabhálta, saved, spared
saltartha, trampled,
stamped
sealbhuighthe, possessed, got
taislighthe, wet, damp,
moist
taithighthe, visited, resorted
taoisnighthe, kneaded, mixed
tárthuighthe, saved, pro-
tected



tiomanta, driven, forced
tlachtuighthe, interred, buried
tochalta, dug, searched
tráillighthe, thinned, mixed
treoruighthe, lead, guided
uaislighthe, famed, ennobled
umhluighthe, submitted,
obeyed



Cuirthear réimhbhriathar i
n-éinfeacht le briathar,
le tládhfhochal, le sruith-
bhriathar, nó le réimhbhriathar
eile, le n-a mbrígh nó a
gcumhachta dhearbhughadh; .i.
léigheann an fíor-dheagh-
dhuine go ro-ghrinn, labh-
raidh go beacht.



Is mír den urlabhar an comh-
nasg, a chuireas focla is
rannta le chéile, .i. a
cheann 's a chosa, ná seas,
acht imthigh.



Is focal siudhuar a cuirthear
roimh lánfhocla nó duair-
ghiollaidhe, le n-a ndáil le
chéile fhoillsiughadh, trá nach
féidir a bhfoillsiughadh le
soidhbhrisíbh: is éigin don
bhfocal a cuirthear leo a
bheith i n-orarus áiridhe, do
réir acht is gnás: leanann
an deilbheach cuid aca, an
tairgeach cuid eile, tuill-
eadh an liudhuarach. Com-
aisgeann siad so síos le
foclaibh, acht go sonnradhach
le duairghiollaíbh, .i., de,


L. 108


le, re, di, fa, fuid, ann;
ag, um, faoi, ua, air, ion,
tair, chuige, do, eidir, co,
a, o, roimh, seach, .i., agam,
agad, chugaibh-se, liom-sa,
leat-sa, rér, romhad.



Acht ní chomaisgeann na
siudhuair so síos le foclaibh
eile i n-a saothar; .i. ann,
san, chum, gan, go, gus, iar,
mar, os, réir, timchioll.



Is focal uaillbhreas a
cuirthear i measg rann,
le mian an chainteora
aithris; a mhuirnín! á!



LÁNFHOCLA D'ÉINTSIOLLA LE N-A mBRÍGH I
SAICSBHÉARLA.



áird, coast, country
aon, ace, race, unit
aos, sect, people, age
bás, extinction of life, death
beacht, ring, compass,
opinion
bleid, impertinence, wooing
bléin, bay, creek, haven,
groin
bonn, sole, base, sake,
cause
brat, cloak, mantle, hood
brath, design, treachery,
ruin
briocht, dye, colour, charm
caob, sedge, turf, clod, peat
caoin, the right side, virtue
cean, love, debt, favour,
fault
ceo, fog, mist, milk, vapour
cioth, peal, heavy shower
cling, crack, knell, chimes
cnáib, hemp, coarse flax
col, sin, fault, impediment
cramh, digestion, concoction
cró, hut, death, witchcraft
crobh, the back of the hand
cuach, cup, globe, cuckoo
cum, waist, combat, duel
dealg, bodkin, thorn, pin
diuc, sorrow, woe, pain,
grief
diúc, a nobleman, a duke
doim, need, poverty, want
dré, drag, sledge, carriage
dreag, rest, fight, wrangle
dron, straight or right line
dubh, blackness


L. 109


fadhb, knot, question
fann, weakness, infirmity
fán, fane, church, chapel
fead, whistle, shrill noise
féigh, debts, deer, redress
féil, a secret, anniversary
feis, parliament, conven-
tion
fial, ferret, veil, covering
fliodh, chick-weed
fuaid, remnant, remainder
gádh, danger, temptation
gáir, outcry, shout, laughter
gaog, flatness, evaporation
geann, laughter, merry
noise
geir, fatness, tallow, grease
ging, flirt, bounce, wedge
gleodh, grief, sigh, moan
glóir, sun-rise, glory, lustre
gnaoi, countenance, face,
grin
goic, posture of the neck
gos, inclination, desire, will
grán, hail, corn, shot, grain
gríomh, claw, talon
gruin, hedge-hog, porcu-
pine
guin, sling, darts, arts,
enemy
ladhg, flock or layer of snow
léadhb, blow, stroke, stripe
leas, profit, interest, luck
léag, diamond, gem, jewel
liath, an aged person, old
age
loch, lake, lough, pond, pool
los, fox
luaith, ashes, dust, a wave
maois, carriage, pack or
bag, knapsack, budget,
basket
meas, estimate, acorn, fruit
mós, mode, form, manner
muing, mane, coarse hair
oirc, lap-dog, a small dog
péin,* pain, torment,
trouble
plaic, cess, an amercement
plúch, smothering, suffoca-
tion
préamh, root, tribe, origin
rath, prosperity, profit, fern
reic, sale, selling, trade
riagh, cross, gallows, gibbet
rioth, a race, flight, running
ros, small seed, land, plain
ruaig, hunt, rout, flight
sac, a bag, sack, or budget
sailm, psalm, psalmody
scailp, den, cave, fissure
scard, dash, flash, splash
scuad, a flock, detachment
seas, a cess of corn sheaves
seilg, a chase, hunting
sgairt, a cry, bawl, shout
sgeamh, reproach, rebuke
sgib, ship, cot, boat, wherry
sgreag, bottom of a river
slám, a lock of tow or wool
sliabh, mountain, high land
sluch, crane, pulley, wheel
snáth, thread, filament, yarn
spáirn, quarrel, wrestling
speir, sparrow-hawk, ham
spraic, a check, reproach



* dat. of pian.


L. 110


sraoin, huff, disturber,
bully
stádh, work, labour, working
stróic, lash, streak, line
strudh, ostrich, a large fowl
suaim, lone, accent, voice
tac, lease, time, season,
prop
tarp, a clod, lump, clay
teann, a press, stiffness,
jail
tocht, a trance, fit, silence
torr, heap, tower, pile, lump
treann, a field, plain, lawn
trian, third part, district
tuath, a layman, a peasant
uair, an hour, time, season
úir, mould, earth, clay, dust



LÁNFHOCLA IS TLÁDHFHOCLA FEARDHA.



Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



acra fada, a long acre … acraidhe fada
áirne dubh, a black sloe … áirnidhe dubha
baile mór, a large town … bailte móra
barra trom, a heavy bar … barraidhe troma
coire lán, a full boiler … coiridhe lána
crú láidir, a strong horse shoe … craoithe láidre
cuaille glas, a green staff … cuaillidhe glasa
draoi grinn, a wise seer … draoithe grinne
duine eolgach, a skilful man … daoine eolgacha
eangla áiridhe, a certain festival … eanglaoithe áirdheacha
eite geal, a white fin* … eitidhe geala
fáinne cruinn, a round ring … fáinnidhe cruinne
faithne cruaidh, a hard wart … faithnidhe cruaidhe
file binn, a sweet poet … filidhe binne
fonnsa cruinn, a round hoop … fonnsaidhe cruinne
ga géar, a sharp arrow … gaíthe géara
gabha stuama, a handy smith … gaibhne stuama
giolla umhal, a humble servant … giollaidhe umhla
inte milis, a sweet kernel … intidhe milse
iasgaire foighdeach, a steady fisher-
man iasgairidhe foighdeacha
iarna caol, a fine skein … iarnaidhe caola
lá fuar, a cold day … laethe fuara



*Cleite, a quill; eite, a fin of a fish.


L. 111


Uimir uathaidh. Uimir iolraidh.



laogh maoth, a tender calf … laoithe maotha
liathchró cumhang, a narrow sty … liathchraoithe cumhanga
maide bán, a white stick … maididhe bána
mála úr, a new bag … málaidhe úra
oide críonna, a prudent teacher … oididhe críonna
oighre óg, a young heir … oighridhe óga
páisde ciuin, a mild child … páisdidhe ciúine
pota glan, a clean pot … potaidhe glana
rí ceart, a just king … ríghthe cearta
roinnire beag, a small divisor … roinniridhe beaga
sgoláire maith, a good scholar … sgoláiridhe maithe
suthaire dall, a great dunce … sutairidhe dalla
tairnge meirgeach, a rusty nail … tairngnidhe meirgeacha
teach lán, a plenteous house … tighthe lána
uisge fuar, cold water … uisgidhe fuara
urchaire glic, an artful slinger… urchairidhe glice



LÁNFHOCLA IS TLÁDHFHOCLA FEARDHA.



Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



easbal umhal, an humble apostle … easbail umhla
adhal leathan, a broad hook … adhail leathna
othar lag, a weak patient … othair laga
oscar tréan, an able warrior … oscair thréana
urchar teann, a strong fling … urchair theanna
urlár tirim, a dry floor … urláir thiorma
éadan deas, a fair face … éadain dheasa
easgar mór, a great fall … easgair mhóra
iarann cruaidh, heavy iron … iarainn chruaidhe
ionnmhus saidhbhir, a rich treasure … ionnmhuis shaidhbhre
an t-arm géar, the sharp weapon na hairm ghéara
an t-órd trom, the heavy sledge … na hóird throma
an t-uan óg, the young lamb … na huain óga
an t-éan fionn, the fine bird … na héin fhionna
an t-iasg geal, the white fish … na héisg gheala
béal beag, a little mouth … béil bheaga
bothán seasgair, a warm cottage … botháin sheasgara
conar socair, a safe harbour … conair shocra
cúram mór, a great charge … cúraim mhóra


L. 112


Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



dabhar úr, a new pitcher … dabhair úra
dronán lom, a bare hill … dronáin loma
dubhán cam, a crooked hook … dubháin chama
fear ciúin, a mild man … fir chiúine
focal caomh, a soft word … focail chaomha
foghmhar torrthach, fruitful harvest … foghmhair thorrthacha
gabhar breac, a speckled goat … gabhair bhreaca
gearrán luath, a swift horse … gearráin luatha
leabhar tiugh, a large book … leabhra tiugha
leanbh slán, a healthy child … leinbh shlána
meannán maoth, a plump kid … meannáin mhaotha
molt reamhar, a fat wether … muilt reamhra
neamhán cíocrach, a greedy crow … neamháin chíocracha
píob gearr, a short pipe … píb ghearra
prosnán láidir, a mighty troop … prosnáin láidre
réar binn, a sweet black-bird … réir bhinne
ród díreach, a straight road … róid dhíreacha
seabhac luath, a swift kite … seabhaic luatha
séathar lán, a large library … séathair lána
teagasg glan, pure doctrine … teagaisg ghlana
treamán bocht, a poor alien … treamáin bhochta



LÁNFHOCLA IS TLÁDFHOCLA FEARDHA IS BANDA.



Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



ainm mór, a great name … anmanna móra
anam beo, a living soul … anmanna beodha
athair maith, a kind father … aithreacha maithe
both lán, a full house … botha lána
brath úr, a new cloak … bratacha úra
cabhlach trom, a large navy … cabhlacha troma
capall bán, a grey mare … caiple bána
colam gorm, a purple pigeon … colamna gorma
cnoc garbh, a rugged hill … cnoca garbha
cuan fairsing, a wide harbour … cuanta fairsinge
dán binn, a sweet poem … dánta binne
dorus cumhang, a narrow door … dorsa cumhanga
druim fionn, a fair back … droma fionna
eas geal, a white cascade … easa geala
fiann tréan, a strong hero … fiannta tréana


L. 113


Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



fíon fionn, white wine … fíonta fionna
gabhal ghéar, a sharp fork … gabhla géara
gaol fogus, a near relation … gaolta fogusa
gleann glas, a green valley … gleannta glasa
greim beag, a small bite … greamanna beaga
iorlán saidhbhir, a rich cellar … iorlána saidhbhre
ireann mín, a plain field … ireanna míne
lann mhion, a small fin … lanna miona
laoch láidir, a strong hero … laochra láidre
líon mogallach, a meshy net … líonta mogallacha
mian fras, a ready mind … mianta frasa
míol mór, a large whale … míolta móra
naoidhean óg, a young child … naoidheana óga
olc gann, least harm … olca ganna
ollamh grinn, a wise poet … ollamhain grinne
orc óg, a young son … orca óga
pobal fial, a kind people … poibleacha fiala
rann binn, a sweet verse … rannta binne
rioth gearr, a short race … reatha gearra
ros fiarach, a level plain … rosa fiaracha
sgéal suairc, a pleasant story … sgéalta suairce
sruth teann, a strong current … srotha teanna
talamh tirm, dry land … talta tiorma
téad fhada, a long rope … téadracha fada



LÁNFHOCLA IS TLÁDHFHOCLA BANDA.



Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



aghaidh shéimh, a mild countenance … aighthe séimhe
ala bhán, a white swan* … alaidhe bána
áit theith, a hot kiln … áithe teotha
báisde fhras, sudden shower … báisdidhe frasa
banta dhílis, a true niece … bantaidhe dísle
bró throm, a weighty millstone … bróinte troma



*Ala agrees with pron. at present time.


L. 114


Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.
comhla leathan, a wide door … comhlaidhe leathna
comhra dhubh, a black coffin … comhraidhe dubha
cuisle lán, a full vein … cuisleanna lána
dearna shleamhain, a smooth palm dearnanna sleamhna
dúthaigh fhairsing, a great estate … dúthaighe fairsinge
éigne mhéith, a plump salmon … éignidhe méithe
fala chian, a long grudge … falaidhe ciana
féile choitcheann, an usual festival féilte coitcheanna
fise mhór, a great school … fisidhe móra
gallchnó mhilis, a sweet walnut … gallchnaí milse
guala mhaol, a blunt shoulder … guailne maola
ionga gheal, a white nail … ingne geala
inne thinn, a sore bowel … innidhe tinne
iora ruadh, a red squirrel … ioraidhe ruadha
luibhne chruaidh, a hard shield … luibhnidhe cruadha
luisne dhearg, a red flame … luisnidhe dearga
maicne ghlan, a noble clan … maicnidhe glana
mala mhín, a smooth brow … malaidhe míne
airle mhaith, good advice … airlidhe maithe
oige chaol, a fine web … oigidhe caola
sailm chaoin, a slow psalm … sailmidhe caoine
rae shoillseach, a bright moon … raethe soillseacha
raithne bhuidhe, yellow fern … raithnidhe buidhe
ruibhne ghéar, a sharp lance … ruibhnidhe géara
seiche ghlas, a green hide … seichidhe glasa
sochraide luath, a swift host … socraididhe luatha
teine the, a hot fire … teinte teotha
taca láidir, a strong post … tacaidhe láidre
tiomna dhéidheanach, a late will … tiomnaidhe déidheanacha
tuile thréan, a violent flood … tuilte tréana
urla fhionn, a fair front … urlaidhe fionna
ursa árd, high post … ursana árda



LÁNFHOCLA IS TLÁDHFHOCLA BANDA.



Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



adharc árd, a lofty horn … adharca arda
airéall sheasgair, a warm bed … airéalla seasgara
ordóg gheal, a white toe … ordóga geala
urchuil dhubh, a black cricket … urchuilí dubha


L. 115


Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



easgonn lúthmhar, a swift eel … easgonna lúthmhara
eibhleóg the, a hot ember … eibhleóga teotha
iosgad theann, a firm ham … iosgada teanna
biorghoin láidir, strong floodgate … biorghoiní láidre
bochaire glic, a wise logician … bochairidhe glice
braitlín bhán, a white sheet … braitlínidhe bána
coiscéim luath, a quick step … coiscéimní luatha
coinneall chéireach, a wax candle … coinnle céireacha
conach línéadaigh, a linen shirt … conacha líneada
crith thinn, a sickly ague … crithe tinne
deil ruadh, a red udder … deile ruaidhe
diallaid dhearg, a red saddle … diallaide dearga
dril fhuar, a cold drop … drile fuara
fuidhir bhinn, a pleasant word … fuidhre binne
fuinneóg dhorcha, a dark window … fuinneóga dorcha
géim árd, a loud bellow … géimne arda
glún fhionn, a fair knee … glúine fionna
laom ghorm, a blue blaze … laoma gorma
liathróid bhog, a soft ball … liathróidí boga
lí uaithne, a green tint … líthe uaithne
iolrach chorr, an odd numerator … iolraighe corra
meadóg ghearr, a short knife … meadóga gearra
míorbhaill mhór, a great miracle … míorbhaillí móra
náomhóg bheag, a small boat … náomhóga beaga
neanntóg chaoch, white nettle … neanntóga caocha
planc leathan, a broad plank … planca leathna
punann thorrthach, a full sheaf … punanna torrthacha
reilic ghlas, a green church-yard … reilicí glasa
riaghlach liath, a grey old woman … riaghlaighe liatha
slighe chumhang, a narrow way … slighthe cumhainge
sméaróid dhearg, a red ember … sméaróide dearga
snáthad ghéar, a sharp needle … snáthadaidhe géara
súil mhór, large eye … súile móra
teine the, a hot fire … teinte teotha
tráill bhocht, a poor slave … tráillí bochta



LÁNFHOCLA IS TLÁDHFHOCLA BANDA.



Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir Iolraidh.



aimsir fhliuch, a wet season … aimsearacha fliucha


L. 116


Uimhir uathaidh. Uimhir iolraidh.



abhainn mhór, a long river … aibhneacha móra
beach shaothrach, an industrious bee beacha saothraca
bean ghrinn, a prudent woman … mná grinne
bliadhain fhada, a long year … bliadhanta fada
bróg fhairsing, a wide shoe … bróga fairsinge
cathaoir bhog, an easy chair … cathaoireacha boga
cíor mhín, a fine comb … cíora míne
clann mhaith, good children … clanna maithe
dorn chruinn, a round fist … dorna cruinne
dris ghéar, a sharp briar … driseacha géara
fallaing dhearg, a red cloak … fallaingtheacha dearga
flaith mhaith, a good prince … flatha maithe
fuithír mhaith, good land … fuithíortha maithe
géag ghlas, a green branch … géaga glasa
glac gheal, a fair palm … glaca geala
iall righin, a tough thong … iallacha righne
imirc fhada a long journey … imirceacha fada
innilt óg, a young handmaid … innilteacha óga
láir bháin, a grey mare … láracha bána
leac chruaidh, a hard flag … leacacha cruadha
lúb bheag, a small plait … lúbacha beaga
luibh mhilis, a sweet herb … luibheanna milse
mias mhaide, a wooden dish … miasa maididhe
muc reamhar, a fat hog … muca reamhra
muir ruadh, a red sea … mara ruadha
nuaill árd, a loud cry … nuailleacha árda
obair luath, quick work … oibreacha luatha
om ghlas, a green oak … oma glasa
pluc mhín, a smooth cheek … pluca míne
póg charadach, a friendly kiss … póga caradacha
rann chomhthrom, an equal share … ranna comhthroma
ruaim dhubh, a black line … ruaimneacha dubha
slat fhada, a long rod … slata fada
sméar dhubh, a blackberry … sméara dubha
snaidhm chruaidh, a hard knot … snaidhmneacha cruadha
tír thirm, a dry country … tíortha tiorma
ubh gheal, a white egg … uibheacha geala
ughaim dhearg, a red harness … ughmacha dearga


L. 117


DUAIRGHIOLLAIDHE IS A gCOMAISGTHEACHA.



a, his, her, its, theirs,
that, who, which
aca, with them
ad, in thy, or your
aga, with them
agad, with thee
agaibh, with you
agam, with me
againn, with us
am, in my
ann, in it, at it
as, from it, out of it,
from it
asad, out of it
asam, out of me
asaibh, out of you
asainn, out of us
asta, out of them
aici, with her,
aige, with him
air, on him
aisti, out of her
ar, our, ours
bhar, bhur, your, yours
cá, who, which
cách, all, each, every
cia, who, which
chuca, unto them
chugad, unto them
chugaibh, unto you
chugainn, unto us
chugam, unto me
chuici, unto her
chuige, unto him
dá, to his, her, their,
theirs
damh, dom, to me
dar, to our, or for our
de, of him
di, of her, or her-
self
díbh, of you or ye
dínn, of or from us
díobh, of them
díom, of me
díot, of you
diú, of you
do, to him; do, your
dod, to your
dóibh, to them
dom, to my
dot, to thy
duibh, to you or ye
dúinn, to us
dúinne, to ourselves
duitse, to yourself
duit, to thee,
é he, or him it, that
eadram, between me
eadrad, between thee
eadraibh, between you
eadrainn, between us
éan, any, either
eatorra, between them
eidre, between him
eidri, between her
eile, other, another
eisean, himself
féin, self
fód, under thy
fóm, under my
fós, under our
form, upon me
fort, upon thee
fair, upon him
foirthi, upon her
forainn, upon us
foraibh, upon ye
forra, upon them
friom, with me
friot, with thee
fris, with him
fria, with her
frinn, with us
fribh, with you
fúd, under thee
fúibh, under you
fúithi, under her
faoi, under him
fúinn, under us
fúm, under me
fút, under thee
fútha, under them
gach, each, every
í, she, her
iad, they
ibhse, ye or you your-
selves
im, in my
inn, we; id, in thy
inne, we ourselves
innte, in her
inntí, in her
ionn, in him
ionnad, in thee
ionnaibh, in you
ionnainn, in us
ionnam, in me
ionnta, in them
ise, herself
leam, liom, with me
lia, with their
leat, with thee
léd, with thy
léi, léith, with her
léithi, with her
leis, lais, with him
leó, with them
lér, with our
libh, with you
linn, with us
mé, I or me
mise, I, myself anyone
mo, my, mine
neach, some
neachtar, either, neither
ó bhur, from your
ód, from thy
oir, on him
oirnne, upon us
óm, from my
ór, from our
orm, on me
ort, on thee
orra, on them
ortha, on them
oraibh, on you
oraibhse, upon ye
orainn, on us
reat, with thee
réd, with thy
reibh, with you
rem, with my
re n-ar, with our


L. 118


rér, with our
ria, with her
ribh, with you
rinn, with us
riom, with my
riot, with thy
ris, with him
riú, with them
roimhe, before him
rompa, before them
roimpe, before her
romhad, before thee
romhainn, before us
romham, before me
romhaibh, before ye
sa, se, si, that, this
sé, he, himself, it
seacha, without them
seachad, without thee
seachaibh, without you
or ye
seacham, without me
seachainn, without us
seiche, without him
seichi, without her
seisean, himself
sí, she, herself
siadsan, they
sibh, ye or you
sibhse, yourselves
sin, that, this
sinn, we, ourselves us
sinne, we, ourselves
sisi, her, herself
so, this, here
son, sake
súd, there, this
tharsa, over them
thairis, over him
thairsi, over her
thoradh, over thee
thoraibh, over you
thorainn, over us
thorm, over me
thorra, over them
thórsa, thórsta, over
them
thort, over thee
tréd, through thy
tríompa, through them
trínn, through us
thríd, through him
tríom, through my
trém, through my
trér, through our
tríbh, through you
tríotha, through them
tríot, through thee
tríthi, through her
tú, thou, or you
tusa, yourself
uaibh, from you
uaidh, from him
uaithi, from her
uaim, from me
uainn, from us
uaisti, above her
uait, from thee
uatha, from them
uasa, above him
uasad, above thee
uasaibh, above you
uasainn, above us
uasam, above me
uasta, above them
úd, that, there
uime, upon him
uimpe, upon her
uirre, upon her
uirthi, upon her
umad, upon thee
umaibh, upon you
umainn, upon us
umam, upon me
umat, upon thee
umpa, upon them



BRIATHRA D'ÉINTSIOLLA, ANNSO SÍOS:



Acht, decree, order, ordain
aic, try, blame, ask, require
aisc, try, search, examine
áit, place, settle, reside, fix
ang, rank. fix, arrange
aol, teach, instruct, white-
wash
árd, exalt, heighten, extol
airg, rob, spoil, plunder
at, swell, puff, extend, rise
bac, stop, hinder, delay, let
báidh, speak, tell talk, endear
bain, cut down, dig, reap
báidh, drown, steep, overflow
bán, waste, whiten, plunder
béic, bawl, shout, cry, roar
beir, take, say, bear, carry
bí, be thou, have a being
blas, taste, feel, enjoy
bog, soften, mollify, loose,
relent
braith, spy, search, seek, try
brod, excite, stir up, rouse
bruid, persecute, or oppress


L. 119


bruith, boil or dress meat
buaidh, overcome, conquer
buail, beat, strike, hit, thrash
caill, loose, cut, deprive
cáin, tax, dispraise, scold
caint, talk, speak, utter, say
caith, waste, spend, eat, cast
cáith, winnow, fan, sift, part
cam, make crooked, wry
caoch, blind, make dark
caoidh, cry, lament, mourn
cas, twist, turn, wind, wry
cath, fight, combat, duel
cead, allow, leave, permit
ceil, hide, deny, conceal
cíor, comb, divide, dress
claoidh, overcome, subdue
claon, bend, crook, bow, wry
cluain, deceive, or defraud
cnead, sigh, sob, or grieve
corn, roll, enwrap, envelop
coisg, stop, hinder, wean, let
craith, shake, scatter, sow
creid, believe, credit, trust
crith, tremble, quake, stir
cum, form, make, shape, fit
daor, condemn, blame, cen-
sure
dath, colour, tinge, dye
déan, do, make, fit, work
dearbh, ascertain, assure
dearc, look, observe, remark
díng, press, stuff, push, drive
dóigh, burn, consume, hurt
druid, shut, enclose, fasten
dual, plait, fold, weave, twist
éag, die, perish, expire, fail
éigh, roar, cry, shout, bellow
fagh, get, procure, acquire
fáidh, say, foretell, prophesy
fair, watch, guard, observe
fáisg, squeeze, crush, press
fan, stay, wait, stop, rest
feall, deceive, fail, cheat
feann, flay, decorate, strip
feart, bury, inter, put in
féach, behold! see! mark!
fiar, make wry, incline,
bend
fliuch, wet, moisten, drench
fóir, help, relieve, succour
fuath, hate, abhor, contemn
fuir, stay, delay, wait, stop
gabh, take, apprehend, seize
gáir, shout, cry, bawl, roar
gath, sling, pierce, perplex
géill, obey, submit, regard
glac, take, receive, handle
goid, steal, purloin, plunder
graif, sign, mark, inscribe
gráin, dislike, loath, hate
guil, cry, lament, sob, moan
iarr, ask, seek, request, try
íoc, pay, discharge, atone
ith, consume, eat, feed upon
lann, cut, put to the sword
las, light, kindle, blaze
last, load, burden, ballast
leag, throw down, cast
lean, follow, pursue, go
leig, grant, suffer, permit
ligh, lick, taste, relish, rub
ling, leap, bounce, spring
líon, fill, surfeit, glut, cram
loisg, burn, singe, scorch
lúb, bend, bow, crook, turn
mair, last, continue, remain
marbh, kill, murder, extinct
maith, remit, forgive, give up
maoth, wet, soften, steep


L. 120


maoidh, boast, grudge, envy
meadh, weigh, balance, equal
meall, deceive, defraud,
cheat
meas, estimate, think, judge
meath, fade, decay, wither
meil, grind, pound, beat
mill, spoil, destroy, mar,
hurt
mol, praise, extol, applaud
múin, teach, instruct, guide
nasg, tie, couple, join, bind
nigh, wash, clean, purge, clear
oil, nurse, cherish, feed
ól, drink, sup, swallow,
guzzle
pac, pack, bind, tie, stuff
pian, torment, pain, tease
plaic, eat, chew, munge
pláigh, plague, infect, rot
pléasg, crack, break, roar
plúch, smother, suppress
póg, kiss, salute, welcome
poll, pierce, penetrate, cut
pronn, give, proffer, gift
reic, sell, dispose, deal
riar, feed, divide, please
righ, reach, extend, arrive
rith, run, flee, pass, drive
roinn, share, part, divide
ruaig pursue, rout, drive
rúisg, smite, beat, strip,
whip
sail, hail thou, welcome
saill, salt, cure, preserve
sáith, thrust, push, stab, cut
saoil, síl, reflect, mind,
think, suppose, imagine,
consider
scaith, lop, cut off, snap
scaoil, loose, untie, strip,
unbind
scuir, cease, desist, stop still
seól, teach, drive, sail, guide
sgar, part, separate, divide
sgoilt, cleave, divide, split
sgríobh, write, engrave, indite
sil, drop, let fall, or sink
sín, stretch, extend, enlarge
sméid, beckon, wink, hint
snámh, swim, float, glide, stir
snoidh, hew, cut, chop, fell
suidh, sit, rest, stay, establish
taisg, keep, store, secure
tál, drop, spring, cherish
téigh, go thou, walk, move
togh, choose, select, pick
toll, bore, pierce, force, cut
treabh, plough, fallow, till
troid, fight, quarrel, strive
tuar, presage, forebode
uaill, roar boast, cry, brag



BRIATHRA DE DHÁ SHIOLLA.



Abair, say, utter, tell, relate
abuigh, ripen mature, swell
acra, agree, come, settle
achla, chase, hunt, pursue
admhuigh, confess, tell, recite
adhmhol, praise, honour, extol
adhlaic, inter, bury, entomb
adhair, adore, worship,
honour
aithris, relate, tell, recite


L. 121


agall, speak, converse, tell
aithnigh, learn, know
agar, pursue, expostulate,
revenge
ala, hail, praise, esteem
altuigh, give thanks, praise
anchaoin, deplore, lament,
cry
aontuigh, agree, yield, con-
sent
ára, plough, fallow, cul-
tivate
arduigh, raise, extol, exalt
anra, beseech, request, ask
asluigh, ask, beg, request
astruigh, stir, move, change
athruigh, change, remove, go
bagair, menace, threaten,
awe
beannuigh, bless, greet,
praise.
beartuigh, play, meditate
beathuigh, feed, nourish, fat-
ten
beódhuigh, enliven, animate
bochtuigh, impoverish, ex-
haust
brosduigh, excite, encourage
cabair, join, tie, bind fast
cailcigh, whiten, chalk
calmuigh, strengthen, firm,
fix
caomhuigh, complete, fulfil
caomhnuigh, protect, save,
spare
casgair, slay, slaughter, kill
ceaduigh, take leave, submit
ceannuigh, buy, purchase
ceangail, join, bend, tie,
fasten
ceannsuigh, tame, correct,
mend
ceartuigh, correct, adjust, fit
ceisdigh, inquire, examine,
try
ceisnigh, moan, question, cry
céadlong, breakfast, refresh
cialluigh, mean, signify,
clear
cimchreach, pillage, rob, rifle
cinntigh, appoint, adjust, fit
ciontuigh, accuse, blame
cirbsir, brew, contrive, plan
claochluigh, change, alter,
vary
cluthuigh, chase, hunt, pursue
codail, sleep, rest, repose
coibhchigh, purchase, buy, take
cogair, whisper, speak low
coigil, spare, preserve, keep
cogain, chew, eat, grind
comaisg, mix, mingle, join
coisrig, consecrate, bless
comhaill, perform, fulfil, do
congbhuigh, keep, retain, hold
críonuigh, dry, fade, wither
criothnuigh, tremble shiver
cruthuigh, prove, assure, form
cúitigh, requite, reward
mend
cumail, rub, scratch, sour
daingnigh, fortify, fasten, tie
dathuigh, dye, colour, tinge
deallruigh, sparkle, shine,
dazzle
daonuigh, civilize, humanize
darnuigh, teach, instruct,
gird
dealbhuigh, frame, put in
order


L. 122


dealuigh, separate, part,
wean
dearbhuigh, affirm, confirm,
tell
deithbhrigh, hasten, hurry, run
deoluigh, grace, favour,
adorn
deonuigh, allow, approve
dianuigh, accelerate, hurry
díbligh, reject, despise,
slight
deimhnigh, assure, affirm, fix
díobhuigh, consume, ruin, hurt
diomail, lavish, waste, spoil
díoruigh, make straight, dive
díosguigh, gnash, clash,
shiver
díultuigh, refuse, deny, reject
dlúthuigh, approach, close, tie
eagluigh, affright, scare, awe
éaluigh, elope, steal, escape
éiligh, claim, demand, accuse
enne, behold! see! look!
fadaidh, kindle, excite, stir
up
fáilbhigh, quicken, enliven
failligh, delay, wait, neglect
fáiltigh, welcome, salute
faisigh, remain, stay, rest,
tarry
faoiligh, rejoice, exult, joy
faráil, offer, present, gift
farsnuigh, widen, increase,
add
fiafruigh, inquire, ask, seek
fíoruigh, certify, ascertain
fiosruigh, know, learn, visit
foghluigh, rob, ransack, steal
foillsigh, reveal, publish,
tell, renounce.
fuathuigh, hate, abhor, dislike
fuirigh, stay, wait, tarry,
stop
fuiling, bear, support, suffer
furtuigh, comfort, aid, re-
lieve
gaibhnigh, forge, sledge,
labour
galbhuigh, foam, breathe
gastuigh, hurry, hasten,
quicken
gealuigh, whiten, bleach,
wet
gealtuigh, fear, stand in awe
geimhligh, confine, pledge,
pawn
géirigh, whet, sharpen, edge
géaruigh, sour, embitter
gláimhigh, devour, glut, swal-
low
glanluigh, fence, inclose
gnáthuigh, accustom, use,
practise
gortuigh, make sour or salty
gorguigh, make harsh, pierce
gortuigh, starve, hurt
greamuigh, join, hold, seize,
gripe
greantuigh, embroider, em-
bellish, carve, emboss
greasuigh, excite, encourage,
incite
gríosuigh, stir up, excite,
spur
imthigh, go, emigrate, begone
innligh, aim, point at, mark
ísligh, humble, degrade,
lessen, lower, alight, get
off
labhair, speak, say, tell, utter


L. 123


laguigh, weaken, diminish,
infirm, enfeeble, hurt
láimhsigh, handle, finger, dis-
cuss
lámhuigh, seize, gripe, appre-
hend
léasuigh, blister, correct,
beat
leasuigh, improve, manure,
mend, repair, enrich, dung
Leithrigh, appear, come in
sight
línigh, delineate, draw lines,
sketch, describe, shew
lochtuigh, blame, reprove,
offend
longsuigh, set sail, float,
swim
lomair, clip, shear, shave
lonnruigh, shine, brighten,
sparkle
luathuigh, hasten, accelerate
luaithrigh, hurry, speed, run
machtnuigh, observe, take
notice, reflect, consider
maistrigh, churn, agitate,
toss
malairt, exchange, barter,
truck, trade, deal
malluigh, curse, condemn,
reprobate
mánsuigh, settle, tame, ques-
tion
maonuigh, meditate, think,
contemplate, ponder
martruigh, maim, lame
masluigh, reproach, abuse,
slander
meabhruigh, scheme, plan,
plot
méaduigh, increase, enlarge,
swell, expatiate, add
mearuigh, mistake, err, do
amiss
mearuigh, make glad or
merry
meantail, decoy, deceive,
sham, cheat, defraud
meatuigh, dismay, discour-
age, terrify
meathluigh, faint or die of
cold, decay, decline,
wither, fail
meirgigh, make rusty, red-
den
meirtnigh, fatigue, languish,
faint, weaken, swoon
meisnigh, encourage, nourish,
cherish
mínigh, explain, amplify, in-
terpret
mugharbh, murder, kill
muirnigh, burden, load, fright
neimhnigh, poison, envenom,
enrage, infect, hurt
nósuigh, appoint, approve,
enact
oirdnigh, arrange, set in
order, bedeck, trim, set
off
oirnigh, adorn, make like
gold
ollmhuigh prepare, make
ready
orduigh, order, appoint, bid
orluigh, mangle, cut in
pieces
ornuigh, adorn, decorate, em-
bellish, embroider, dress
osnuigh, sigh, groan, lament


L. 124


páirtigh, partake, unite, as-
sociate, join in league,
agree
preabruigh, patch, mend,
piece
rannsuigh, examine, try,
search
righnigh, adhere, stiffen, make
stiff, make tough or ropy
riochtuigh, attain to, arrive at
rionaigh, carve, engrave, cut
roighnigh, elect, choose, cull
sábháil, save, spare, protect
sacuigh, pack, fill, sack,
stuff
saltair, stamp, tread, tramp
samhluigh, compare, resemble,
shapen, liken, illustrate
saoirsigh, cheapen, reduce
in price
saothruigh, labour, work, toil
scannruigh, displace, scatter,
confound, alarm, affright
sceathruigh, vomit, reject,
emit
seacuigh, parch, dry, freeze
seachluigh, lay aside, put
apart
sealbhuigh, possess, obtain,
get
seirligh, consume, waste, de-
stroy, spend, lavish
sgrúduigh, examine, search,
try, last
síordhuigh, eternize, immor-
talize, perpetuate, con-
tinue
sleamhnuigh, slip, slide, glide
sludraigh, settle, abide,
dwell
smuaintigh, think, consider,
muse, contemplate
srathuigh, scatter, spread, ex-
pand
sreathnuigh, wet, assess,
charge, impose, spread,
extend.
stacuigh, heap, fill, mass,
stack
stiúruigh, guide, pilot,
manage, conduct, steer
a ship
stríocuigh, submit, yield,
give
suaimhnigh, rest, please,
charm
tabhair, give, deliver, allow,
let
tarraing, draw, exhale,
taidhbhrigh, dream, fancy,
think
taisligh, wet, moisten, damp,
irrigate, water, make
moist
taithigh, resource, visit, fre-
quent, resort, haunt
quiet
taithligh, appease, mitigate,
taithnigh, please, delight,
támhuigh, dwell, reside, in-
habit
tanuigh, make thin or slen-
der
taoisnigh, knead, make
dough
tapuigh, hasten, hurry, run
tarbhuigh, profit, benefit,
gain


L. 125


tairngigh, prophesy, fore-
tell, predict, foreshow,
tell
tárrthuigh, save, deliver, pro-
tect
tathuigh, cement, join, weld
teagaisg, teach, instruct,
show
teastuigh, testify, lack, need
teathuigh, celebrate, solemn-
ize
teothuigh, heat, make warm
tionól, collect, gather,
add, assemble, muster to-
gether
tiomáin, drive, force, urge
tiomnuigh, order or dedi-
cate, give, bequeath, leave
by will
tiomsuigh, collect, gather,
lift
tionnsguigh, plan, plot, com-
mence, undertake, try,
make
tionntuigh, turn, convert,
twist
tlachtuigh, inter, buried, put
in
tláthuigh, reduce, weaken,
lessen, macerate, make
thin
tlusuigh, pretend, dissemble
tochail, dig, turn up, search
taidhbhrigh, appear, fancy,
show
toichnigh, fast, abstain, for-
bear
tóirigh, pursue, follow, trick
tóirnigh, thunder, bellow,
roar
tormuigh, enlarge, increase,
augment, multiply, add
tosuigh, begin, try, com-
mence
tostuigh, confute, stop,
silence
tosguigh, go on, move, pro-
ceed
tothluigh, ask, request, peti-
tion, entreat, beg, seek
tráilligh, knead, work dough,
mix, make thin, atten-
uate
traoghluigh, quell, drain,
empty
treabhluigh, trouble, disturb,
disquiet, weaken, vex
treachluigh, destroy, lavish,
fatigue
treamuigh, fetter, close, ob-
ligate, fasten, join, bend,
tie
treifigh, pull, blow, blast,
blight, disappoint, hurt
treisigh, aid, help, succour,
abet, encourage, add
treóruigh, conduct, lead,
guide
tormuigh, aggravate, load,
burden, freight
tromluigh, accuse, burthen,
overlay
truailligh, pollute, profane,
defile, stain, maculate,
mar
tuirigh, reign, sway, rule,
govern, manage, direct,
guide
tuirling, come down, alight
descend, get off a horse


L. 126


tuirsigh, weary, fatigue, tire
tuisigh, bring forth, bear,
give
uaimhnigh, terrify, frighten,
alarm, scare, shock, awe
uaisligh, ennoble, dignify,
aggrandize, advance
uaithchligh, awe, dismay, ter-
rify frighten
uaithnigh, prop, support,
maintain, preserve, up-
hold, help
uisgigh, water, irrigate,
moisten
ullmhuigh, prepare, make
ready
umhluigh, obey, submit,
humble



BRIATHRA DE THRÍ SHIOLLA.



Adhfhuathmhar, detest, abomi-
nate
airdchéimnigh, extol, strut,
dignify, magnify, exalt
airdriaghluigh, sway, rule,
govern
aistrigh, move, stir, travel,
march, change
aisreimnigh, reciprocate, in-
terchange
aithréitigh, reunite, reconcile,
appease, quiet, pacify,
calm
aithdheimhnigh, assert, affirm
anbhfannuigh, weaken, injure,
enfeeble, deprive of
strength
antromuigh, gravitate, load,
preponderate, burden
asáitigh, quit, evacuate,
abandon
asurluigh, support, prop,
bear up, sustain, carry
aithionntuigh, return, turn
back, consent
atharruigh, vary, change,
alter
aithleasuigh, reform, correct,
amend, grow better
athchogain, ruminate, chew
the cud
aithneartuigh, reinforce, re-
cruit, strengthen, ani-
mate
aithchearnuigh, re-examine,
seek
aithreóruigh, re-conduct,
guide, shew, direct
aithchéimnigh, recapitulate,
repeat
athchóirigh, rectify, repair
athchruinnigh, rally, gather
together
athchuimhnigh, recollect, re-
member, mind
atharghuigh, congregate, re-
assemble, muster
athchuingigh, petition, re-
quest
athfhuasgail, free, save,
ransom, redeem, recover,
rescue
athghabháil, retake, reassume,
recourse, take again.


L. 127


athmhalart, re-exchange,
barter, deal
athnuadhuigh, renew, reno-
vate, repeat, restore
athsmuainigh, reflect, con-
sider, muse
athshocruigh, set, re-establish,
affix, refresh, settle
aththosuigh, re-assume, re-
commence
baothuaibhrigh, arrogate,
boast, vaunt, brag
baramhluigh, suppose, con-
jecture, suspect
bréagasluigh, dream, con-
cert, fancy, surmise
ceileabhair, chat, talk, cele-
brate, solemnize
cóimhchéimnigh, accompany,
join with, associate
cóimhchriothnuigh, tremble,
fear, quake
cóimhdheasuigh, accommo-
date, repair, mend, better
cóimhéignigh, force, oppress,
violate
cóimhfhreagair, join, cor-
respond, make fit,
answer
cóimhghreamuigh, adhere,
affix, weld
cóimhimigh, accompany, go
together, unite with
cóimhiomlán, fulfil, perfect,
complete
cóimhneartuigh, confirm,
corroborate, ensure,
strengthen
cóimhthionól, assemble, con-
gregate, unite, collect
cómhairligh, advise, counsel,
consult
cómhaontuigh, agree, unite,
consent, submit
cómharthuigh, remark, note,
sign, observe
cómhchaidrigh, partake, share
cómhchruinnigh, assemble, con-
voke, unite, add
cómhchudtrom, balance,
settle, make equal
cómhchuibhrigh, tie, concaten-
ate, fetter, fasten, chain
cómhdhaingnigh, affix, con-
firm, fasten
cómhfhurtuigh, help, cure,
comfort, support
cómhghárduigh, exult, rejoice,
congratulate
cómhlabhair, discourse, con-
fer, converse, or talk
together
cómhphártuigh, comhrúnuigh,
impart, communicate,
grant
cómhtharuigh, consign, assign
cómhthromuigh, balance, equal
cruaidhcheangail, bind, tie
cuideachtuigh, accompany,
join
cúlmhasluigh, slander, back-
bite
cumhnantuigh, covenant,
agree
deithneasuigh, hasten, hurry
diamhasluigh, blaspheme,
curse
dídeanuigh, defend, protect
dímheisnigh, discourage,
enfeeble


L. 128


díochuimhnigh, forget, lose
eadarscar, separate, di-
vorce
eadarghuidh, supplicate, beg
éadtromuigh, alleviate,
lessen
éagsamhluigh, diversify, vary
easailligh, debase, lower
easáitigh, displace, dis-
locate
eidirghleoigh, judge, decree
eiséirigh, arise, rise, appear
folmhuigh, empty or exhaust
folmhuigh, empty, make
fionnfhoillsigh, protest, de-
clare
fíorchruthuigh, prove, evince
foilbhéimnigh, reproach, dis-
grace, dishonour
foirbhreathnuigh, divine, con-
jecture
foirchéimnigh, proceed, go
on, precede, advance,
forward
foiréignigh, oppress, ob-
trude
foirleathnuigh, extend, en-
large
forfhuagair, proclaim, re-
port
idirmhín, interpret, explain
imnesigh, bind, tie, fix,
oblige
imréimnigh, travel, go about n
imthreascair, wrestle, strive
inmhéaduigh, multiply, en-
large.
ioghláithrigh, consume, waste
iomaduigh, increase, mul-
tiply.
ithiomrádh, slander, back-
bite
láinchéimnigh, wander
láinchríochnuigh, perfect, com-
plete
láinshiubhail, traverse, labour
lámhrachtuigh, handle, dis-
cuss
malartuigh, exchange, bar-
ter
míghealuigh, pollute, stain,
mímheisnigh, discourage, ter-
rify
mímhéaduigh, lessen, reduce
míodhúiligh, abhor, contemn,
detest
mímhianuigh, sadden, grieve
míochuidigh, neglect, forsake
míodhaingnigh, loosen, untie
míofhurtuigh, disturb, neglect
míothaithigh, forsake, unfre-
quent
mítheagaisg, unteach
míthreóirigh, put astray or
deceive, mislead, mis-
guide
míuaisligh, degrade, lessen
naomhalluigh, blaspheme,
curse
naomhchosraig, consecrate,
dedicate, devote, make
neamhchorruigh, undisturb,
make steady, unmolest,
neamhlachtuigh, disburden,
commend


L. 129


neamhothuigh, make insen-
sible
neamhonóir, dishonour, re-
ject, despise, refuse
neamhshásuigh, dissatisfy, dis-
please
neamhshocruigh, disturb, make
uneasy, confound, vex
neamhshoirbhigh, fail in our de-
sign
neamhshoilsigh, darken,
blacken
neamhshuaimhnigh, discom-
mode
neamhumhluigh, disobey, re-
ollamhnuigh, instruct, teach
onóruigh, respect, reverence
rannphártuigh, partake, dwell
reachtcheangail, bind in law,
article, covenant
réamhaithnigh, foreknow, re-
cognise
réamhsmuainigh, forethink
réimhinnsigh, foretell, pro-
phesy
searcoirmhin, reverence
honour
seirbhísigh, serve, attend,
assist
síriomchair, continually bear
sírshiubhail, travel, sojourn
snaglabhair, stammer, hesi-
tate
solásuigh, comfort, console,
joy, ease, cheer, gladden
solamhnuigh, celebrate,
praise
sotaluigh, boast, brag, flatter
tarshoillsigh, shine through
timhchillghearr, circumcise,
cut
timchiollsgríobh, define, in-
close, circumscribe
uirísligh, humble, depre-
ciate
ullmhuigh, prepare, provide,
dispose
umlabhair, use indirect ex-
pressions or circumlocu-
tions
urchuidmhigh, postpone, ex-
cuse
urdhaingnigh, establish, affix,
settle, found, strengthen



RÉIMHBHRIATHRA, ANNSO SÍOS.



I bhfad, far, far distant
i bhfogus, near, hard by
i bhfos, i bhfus, on this side
i gcéin, i gceóin, i gcian,
i gcin, far, far off
acht beag, save, except
i gcomhar, opposite side



ag so, here, at this time or
place
air ceadna, ar cheana,
henceforth
ais, air gcúl, backward
allód (i n-), formerly, here-
tofore


L. 130


amhla, amhlaidh, thus, so,
like
amhail, like to, equally
amárach, to-morrow
amuigh, amach, out, outside,
amháin, only, yet
anoirthear, the day after
to-morrow
anall, hither, nearer
annamh, seldom, scarcely
annam, seasonably, fitly.
opportunely
anmhór, exceedingly, exces-
sivley
eninfheacht, alone, altogether
anois, now, immediately
anuair, when, at the hour
anuas, down on the ground
ar aba, for the sake of
araon, together, at one time
aréir, last night
aroille, as much as, together
ar dtús, at first, chiefly
'seadh, yes, undoubtedly
ba, under, below less
beagnach, almost, nearly
bíodh, although, yet, beside
bithshíor, always, constantly
bhus, hereabouts, on this side
cáit, where, at what place
can, ca tráth, when, whilst
céadus, of all, chiefly
cheana, alike, however
maille, together
céadga, why, wherefore
ci, cia, who, what, when
cian, afar off, aloof
cinnte, surely, certainly
cionguairt, beforehand



cionmhar, because, for
comh, alike, equally
choidhche, ever, eternally
cois, near, here, at hand
comhair, opposite, over
against
comhairde, as high or tall
comhnuidhe, always, con-
stantly
cora, rather, sooner
cortaobh, together
chuige, therefore, in conse-
quence
dáil, near, within reach
d'eagla go, lest that
i ndéidh, after, behind
deóidh, ever, therefore
i ndiaidh, after, afterwards
díoghrais, constantly, still
do ghnáth, usually, always
d'oidhche, by night
do réir, according to, con-
sequently
do shíor, always, ever
go drásda, go trásda,
hitherto
eadh, yes, yea, surely
éanchor, éantort, anywise
éanuair, at once, one time
éigin, truly, surely, certainly
fa chúl, backwards
fad, far, far distant
fa dheóidh, finally, lastly
fa dhó, twice, double
fa leith, a part, separately
fa seach, distinctly, apart
fa thrí, thrice, three times
fearr better, more good, or
choice
feasda, hereafter


L. 131


fo, towards, forward, also
fo bhith, because, for
fo seach, one by one, alter-
nately
fós, go fóil, yet, a while
fochair, along with, together
gar, nigh, near, hard by
gairid, lately, shortly, near
geinmhothá, except, unless
gidh, gidheadh, although, yet
giodhtrácht, nevertheless
go, until, to the time that
go bráth, go deóidh, for ever
go ciúin, mildly, quietly
go fonnmhar, willingly,
readily
go glan, cleanly, purely
go hannamh, seldom, rarely
go héadtrom, lightly
go hobann, suddenly soon
go holc, badly, wickedly
go luath, swiftly, soon
go maith, very well, gaily
go moch, early, very soon
go neartmhar, strongly
go nuige, until, to that place
or time go réidh, easily, possibly
go saor, freely, frankly
go síorruidhe, continually
go teann, stiffly, firmly
go dtí, until, to that time
gur, that, which, who
iartain, afterwards, next in
order
idir, at all
imne, thus, in this mode
indé, yesterday
indiu, to-day
ionn, therein, in that



iodhon, eadhon, viz., to wit,
namely
iomorro, moreover, besides
ionann, equally, alike
ionnas, ionnus, so that
iar, behind, in arrears
láthair, next, present
lór, enough, abundantly
lórmhór, abundantly
má, má's, if, if so
mágcuairt, round about
mar, as, like, likely
mar so, thus, this way
minic, mionca, often
moch mall, early and late
maiseadh, then, in that case
madhbeag, except, save
má tá go, nevertheless
ná, nár, neither, not either
nachtar, neachtar, outwardly
ní, ní headh, not, it is not
nis, nois, now, immediately
nó, or, moreover, beside
ó, ós, since, because
ó shoin a le, from that time
oiread, as much as
ós áird, publicly, openly
ós íseal, privately
ro, roi, very
ria, roimhe, before
rís, again, once more
roimh, early, soon
ro-bheag, very little
ro-chaoin, very slender
ro-dheas, very fair
ro-fhíor, very assuredly
ro-ghar, very nigh, near
ro-láidir, very strong
ro-mhór, very much
sár, sáir, very, exceedingly


L. 132


seach, else, so, otherwise
seacht, rather, especially
seachtar, without, on the
other side
seadh, yea, yes, truly
sgomal-sgartha, astride
siar, westwards, back-
wards
sin, so, thus, alike
síos, down, on the ground
síordha, síorruidhe, for ever
siu, sol, sul, solfa, before
soiche, until, to the time
that
soin, that, thence
soir agus siar, east- and west-
ward
son, for sake of, on account
of
suas, up, aloft
thall, beyond, further
tan, at the time when
tar, tar ceann, out of, be-
yond, before, over and
above
tar éis, afterwards
tharfuidhné, the day before
yesterday
tarsa, tairis, over, by, past
tearc, scarcely, rarely
teóir, thirdly, in the third
place
teora, three times
tuaidh, northward
tucht, when, at what time
túsga, taosga, rather
tuille, more, greatly, more-
over
úd, there, or that, you
uime, wherefore
uime sin, wherefore



COMHNAISG ANN SO SÍOS.



Ach, but, yet
acht, but, yet
agus, and, &
an, whether
ar, whither
bíodh, though, yet
ceachtar, either
chum that, so that
dá, if, if so
do bhrígh, for this, because
de réir, according to, as
such, equal



féibh, as, because, accord-
ing
foir, because
fós, yet, still
ge, at, though
gidh, though, yet
gidheadh, although
go, though, so that
gur, that, as
is, as, 's, and
ioná, than, nor
ionnus, gur, so that



iomorro, but
má, if,
madh, if it is
mar na gcéadhna, also,
likewise
muna, unless
ná, than, nor
ní, not, no, nor
nó, or, nor, neither
nocha, not, nor
oir, uair, because
seach, besides


L. 133


SIUDHUAIR ANNSO SÍOS.



A, in, at
a chois, near to
ag, with, by at,
ar, on, upon
imeasg, among
i ndiaidh, after
anuas, down
ar son, for the sake of
ann, in, at, within
ar dtús, ar first
as, out, out of
chuige, to, unto
chum, to, towards
de, of, thereof
do, to, towards
eidir, between
fa, under, to



faoi, beneath
fo, under
gan, without
go, to, unto
gus, to, unto
i, in, within
iar, backward
idir, betwixt
ionnsaidhe, unto
ionn, in, within
láimh ré, nigh to
lé, by, with
leis, with, wherewith
mar, according
ó, from
ós, above, over
ós coinne, opposite



ré, to, with, by
réir, according
ris, with, to
roimh, before
sa, in, at
seach, besides
síos, down, below
suas, up, above
thall, beyond
timchioll, around
tré, through
tríd, by, through
ua, from, away
um, about, near to



UÁILBHREASA ANNSO SÍOS.



A, oh! alas! O!
adhbhó, murder!
aillileo, help!
is truagh mé, woe is me!
alas!
athath, heyday! or hey!
baba, O brave!
boch, heyday! hey!
budh, nonsense!
badh, death! woe!
bail ó Dhia, God bless
you!
breagh é, O brave!
céinmheas, O happy!
connail dhuit, farewell!
adieu!
chuisle mo chroidhe, O
my darling!



é, alas! oh! woe!
éist, hush! whist!
fafa, strange!
faraor, alas!
féach, behold! see! lo!
fí fo, fie upon you!
shame! ah!
fuil le luadh, bloody
wars, halloo!
go mbeannuighe Dia
dhuit, the blessing of
God to you!
huho, halloo!
ioch, ioch, cold! cold!
lo, see! behold! lo!
see! look!
mo chreach, my ruin!



mairg, woe! or woe is
me! alas!
mo nuar, alas! oh!
mo náire, my shame!
m'ucht, m'ucht, O my
troubled heart! my
great grief!
muirnín mo chroidhe, the
darling of my heart!
my love!
och, alas! oh!
pah, hah! hah ha!
sit, whist! hush!
slán leat, adieu! or
farewell! speed!
uch, heigh-ho! ho!
uchán, alack! alas!
uchón, alas! alas!


L. 134



L. 135


FOCLÓIR GRAMADAMHAIL.



Abbreviation, nod: “ní beag nod
don eolach,” “the scholar only
needs a contraction;” pl. noda,
nodaí.



Ablative, adj., forcarach, díoghbhálach.



Ablative, n. foxlaidh, m. (gen. -adha);
as an abl. fem., do fhoxlaidh
féimhin; diubhartach.



Abnormal, aindleaghthach, neimhdhligh-
theamhail, tar dligheadh.



Absence of declension, neimhdhiall;
not without principle is their
absence of declension in the two
parts, ní gan dligheadh a neimhdhiall
ó dhá rann.



Absent, éagnairc; near absent,
éagnairc fhogus; far absent, éag-
nairc chian.



Absolute, lánchumhachtach, saor, fras,
uatuasailceach (Latinism).



Abstract noun, ainm teibhidh, duar
teibhidh, ainm geineamhnach.



Accent (mark), trasnach, síneadh
fada, fleasg.



Accent (stress), aiceann, m.; an
accent on the ultima, aiceann i
n-uilt; the accent which is on
the nom. is that which will be on
the oblique cases, an t-aiceann
bheas ar an ainmnidh is é bheas ar
na camthuislibh; the bringing of
the accent on the antepenult, an
t-aiceann do bhreith ar ante-
péneuilt.



Accentuation, aiceannughadh.



Accidence, dáil, f.



Accident, teagmhas, cinneamhaint,
aicíd (old).



Accidental, teagmhaingtheach, teag-
mhasach.



Accommodation, comadasughadh.



Accomplishment, iomchomhall.



Accretion, forbart.



Accusative (adj.), gearánach.



Accusative (noun), tachlughadh, áinsidh,
m.; in the form of an accusative,
ar dheilbh áinseadha.



Accustomary (habitual past), Leith-
dheimhniughadh. See imperfect.



Action, gníomh, m.



Active, gníomhach, oibrighthe.



Active verb, briathar oibrighthe.



Acute accent, biorfhleasg, agúid; I
pronounce with the acute accent,
agúidighim; the acute on their
own termination, agúid i n-a
bhfoircheann féin.



Add, v.; tórmaighim (v. n., tórmach);
add to, accomhlaim do.



Added (to), tórmachta (le).



Added letter, litir bhisigh, litir
thórmaigh.



Adding to, addition of, tórmach
(usual in gen.); riaghail tórmaigh
-e ar an ngeinidin, the law of add-
ing -e to the genitive.



Addition (an a. to the end, &c.),
fortórmach, m.



Addition to, tórmach ar (rarely le);
the addition of -ar to an adjective,
tórmach -ar ar tládhfhocal; with-
out the addition of a noun to it,
gan ainm do thórmach leis.



Adjective, tládhfhocal, aidiacht,
aicídeach, feac-or.



Admit of eclipsis, urdhubhadh do
ghlacadh.



Adventitious artránach.



Adverb, foirbhriathar, dobhriathar, f.;
fuidhirdhál, f.; réimhbhriathar;
iarmbéarla.



Adverbial, foirbhriathrach, dobhria-
thardha.



Adversative, contrárdha, codarsna.



Affinity, coibhneas, fialas, gaol.



Affirmation, dearbhughadh, indidhid.


L. 136


Affix, taobhmhír, f.



Affixation, taobhchur, m.



Affixed pronoun, forainm deiridh.



Affirmative, deimhnightheach.



After-addition, iardhaighe.



Agent, gníomhaidhe, gníomhóir.



Agglutination, iomtháthadh.



Agglutinative, iomtháithteach.



Agree with, to, freagairt do,
córdadh le, teacht le.



Agreement, freagra, freagairt,
córdach.



Akin (to), coibhneasta (do), comhgus;
is c. do bhréithir í, it is akin to a
verb; is c. leo araon é, it is akin
to them both; the sound of both
is akin, comhgus a bhfoghar
araon.



Allocution, agallamh, comhlabhra.



Allocutive, comhlabhraidhe.



Alphabet, aibghitir, f.; aibidil, f.



Alphabetical, aibghitreamhail.



Alternation, eilidheadas, m., sea-
laidheacht.



Alternative text (sacred), eadarrogha
canóine.



Ambages, iomfhocal.



Ambiguity, doiléire, neimhchinn-
teacht.



Amphiobology, iomfhocal, doiléire,
neimhchinnteacht, aincheas.



Anacolouthon, ainiarmhairt, f.



Analogical, analaigheach, riaghalda.



Analogous instance, analach, m.



Analogy, analaighe, dálta, fearacht.



Analysis, dealuigheacht, deighilt,
sgáineadh, ionaithmheach.



Analytic, dealuightheach, deighilteach,
sgáinteach.



Analyze, taithmhighim.



Anaphora, n., adarcadh (i.e., ath-
dearcadh,), gen. adarctha (old gen.
adairceadha).



Anaphoric, adarcadhach (i.e., ath-
dearcadhach).



Anastrophe, iompódh.



Ancient, an, ársaidhe; iar ndligheadh
ársaidhe, according to the rule of
the ancients; riaghail ársaidhe, a
rule of the ancients.



Annihilated, tochta.



Anomalous, neimhriaghalda, aimh-
bheacht.



Anomaly, míriaghail, f.



Answer, freagra.



Antecedent, réimhimtheachtaidhe, réimh-
bhriathar.



Antepenultimate (antepenult), ante-
péneult, forréimhdhéidheanach.



Anteposition, réamhshamhughadh, réimh-
theachtas.



Antiquity (ancient usage), ásraidhea-
das, m.



Antithesis, friothchaint, friothfhocal,
friothrádh.



Aorist, éigcríochdha.



Aphaeresis, díchneadh tosaigh, réimh-
dhíchneadh.



Aphthong, amhancholl, m.



Apocopated, tobhaidhe.



Apocope, díchneadh deiridh, tobha.



Apodosis, athbheart, f.



Apostrophe, apostroph, f.; comhthodh,
m.



Appellation, diongra.



Appellative, n., aitheirreachtaidhe.



Appellative (common) noun, ainm
do-agallmhach (Lat.).



Appellativity, do-agallmhaighe
(Lat.).



Application, bail, f.



Apposition, comhaisnéis. f.; arradh;
in apposition, a arradh (with is), i
n-arradh, i gcomhaisnéis (with tá);
by apposition, tré chomhaisnéis.



Approach, or approximate (to), v.,
dul chum; to the primitive origin
to which it is like the derivative
approaches, chum céadaidheadais
leis an gcosmhail iseadh théid an
díorshuidhighthe.



Approximate, a., foisgeach, garach,
garamhail.



Arranging, act of, lathar; in arrang-
ing the text, ag lathar teistimhin.



Article, airtiogal, m.; alt, m.



Articular pronoun, foraimn airtio-
galda.



Articulate (sound), v., sonaim, fogh-
raim.



Articulated noun, tulshunnradh.



Aspirated, tinfeiste, buailte, aná-
luighthe, séimhighthe.



Aspirate, n., dasian (Grecism).



Aspirate, v., análuighim, séimhighim,
buailim: dasianuighim (Grecism).


L. 137


Aspiration, tinfeadh, séimhiughadh,
análughadh, bualadh, séimhe.



Assimilation, cosamhlughadh.



Assimilative, cosamhluightheach.



Assumption, airide, f., gen. -ean.



Asterisk, astraisg, f., réaltóg.



Asyntactic, míochóimhréireach.



Atonic, n., neamhaiceannach.



Attraction, iomtharraing, iomdhrong,
both f.



Attribute, samhladh.



Attribution, samhlughadh.



Attributive, samhluightheach.



Attenuation, caolughadh, séimhiughadh.



Augment, biseach, breis, ughdar-
thórmachtaidh, indile.



Augmentative, iomdhughadh, bisiughadh.



Augmentative (degree of compar.),
aibhsiughadh, ex. ro-fhoghlumtha.



Autonomous, fras (usually placed
before noun).



Autotype, tuscurnadh.



Auxiliary, n., cabharthach, m.; for-
tachtaidhe.



Bare neuter, neodar fornocht.



Barren, aimrid.



Beginning (of a word, &c.), tosach;
at the beginning before each case,
i dtosach roimh gach tuiseal.



Beginning (of an action), tionns-
gan.



Bigeneric, déchinéile.



Body of the word, corp suin, corp
an fhocail.



Breaking up of a compound, taidh-
bheach comhsuidhighthe.



Breadth, leathad, leithead.



Brevity, cuimre, f.



Broad, leathan.



Broadening a sound, leathnughadh
foghair.



Cacophony, mífhoghar, m.



Cant-fable, caint chumaisg.



Capital (letter), cinnlitir.



Cardinal, prímh-, árd-.



Cardinal number, príomhuimhir.



Case, tuiseal, m.; cás, m.; órarus,
m.



Causal, fáthach, feicseandaidh.



Casual connection, feicseanughadh.



Causality, feicseanughadh.



Cause, fochann, f.; iomfhulang; fáth,
adhbhar, bun, tugaid, trúig, sgéal,
siocair, cúis.



Change, cumhsgughadh, iomchlódh,
athrughadh, eiliughadh; change of
accent, cumhsgughadh aicinn; change
of order, cumhsgughadh uird; change
of gender or declension, iomchlódh
cinéil nó díll.



Change, v., cumhsguighim; unless they
change the termination they do
not change the gender, muna
gcumhsguighid tarmoircheann ní
chumhsguighid cinéal; eilighim.



Chapter, caibidil, f.



Character (shape), carachtar, m.;
airdhe.



Characterize, treisighim.



Characteristic, treiseach.



Characteristic vowel, gné-ghuth,
príomh-ghuth.



Choosing between, eadarrogha.



Class, aicme, comhar, roinn.



Circumflex accent, iomlúb, ciorcun-
fléx.



Circumlocution, tiomchaint, tiom-
rádh.



Circumlocutory, tiomchainteach, tiom-
ráidhteach.



Circumstance, gné.



Citation, deismireacht, tabhairt
anuas, abadh.



Citation of a word as an example:
Prefix ó'n ní is to the example,
e.g., so that it is not possible for
ditia to be from dis, i gcás nach
féidir ditia do bheith ó'n ní is dis.



Clause, abairt, beart, f.; rann, m.



Coalesce with, táthuighim le.



Cogender, coiginéal (chomh-chinéal).



Cognition, eadargna.



Coherence, comhchrochadh.



Collection, comhthionól; sense of col-
lection (collective sense), ciall
comhthionóil.



Collective noun, ainm comhthionóil.



Collision, comhfhriothorgain.



Collocation, comhfhuirmeadh.



Combination, accomhal.



Combination of letters, litreadh,
comhlitir.



Combination of words, comhchaint.



Coming after, tiarmórtas


L. 138


Command, forgaire, m.



Commentary, tráchtaireacht, trách-
tadh, foaiceacht.



Commentator, tráchtaire.



Common, coitcheann.



Commonness, ionchoitcheannas, coit-
chinne,



Community, coitcheannas, gen. coit-
cheannsa.



Commutation, malairt, iomlaoid.



Comparative, coibhchéime, iomarbháidh,
comparaid (Lat.).



Compare to, v., samhladh le; the
thing to which it is compared, an
nídh le n-a samhaltar.



Compare (adjectives), v., coindeal-
gaim; cosamhluighim (phil.).



Comparison, (phil., &c.), coimhmeas,
compráid, comórtas; (generic),
samhaltas, iontamhail.



Comparison (of adjectives, &c.);
(gram.) coindealg, m., gléire,
iomarbháidh; the old sub-divisions
of coindealg are: coindealg
céille gan son, ex. bonus, melior,
optimus; coindealg suin gan
chéill, ex. bonus, bonior, bonimus;
coindealg suin agus céille, ex.
magnus, maior, maximus — truly,
no other race would ever have hit
on such a remarkable classification.



Complement, allroinn.



Complete, v., líonaim, lánaim; to
complete and manifest quality in
them, do lánadh agus do fhoill-
siughadh inne ionnta.



Complete sense, lán-chiall.



Completeness, láine.



Completion, iomchomhall, forba.



Complex, ilfhillteach, casta.



Composed (made up of), comhthear-
chomhraicthe (ó), comhdhéanta (de).



Composition, comhshuidhiughadh (saothar
(i n-a shaothar, in its composition)).



Composition (writing), rosg, aisti-
dheacht.



Compound, n., iolmhaoin, comhfhocal,
cóimhcheangal, comhshuidhiughadh.



Compound, adj., comhshuidhighthe.



Compound of independent words,
comhfhocal.



Compound of prefix and word, greim
comhfhocail.



Compound sentence, cóimhbhreith, comh-
rann.



Compound verb, comhbhriathar.



Compounded, comhbhuailte, comh-
shuidhighthe, comhdhéanta; it is c.
from it, is comhshuidhighthe uaidh é.



Compressed, tiomthásta, dlúithte.



Concessive, géillteach.



Conception, ciall, f.



Concision, tóbha, m.



Conclusion of the period, iardteis-
timhin.



Concord, cóimhtheacht, snaschruth,
comhaonta, comhchórdadh, cóimhréir;
riaghlughadh.



Concrete, corpardha, cóimhleantach.



Concrete noun, bunudhas.



Concurrent, cóimhchéimneach.



Conditional, connradhach, coinghioll-
ach, coinghiollda.



Conditionality, coinghiollaighe.



Confirmation, comhneartughadh.



Conformity, comhdheilbh, coindeilbh,
f.; in c. with, i gc. le.



Confusion, cumasg.



Congregation, comhchruinniughadh.



Congruence, comhaiteacht.



Conjoining, imiadhadh, comhnasgadh.



Conjugate, v., réimighim.



Conjugation, soinréim, f.; réim-
iughadh; coibheadhain (gen. -dhne), f.



Conjunct, comhnaisgthe, cóimhcheang-
ailte.



Conjunction, comhaccomhal, m.; comh-
nasg, m.; cóimhcheangal, m.



Conjunctive, n., suidhiughadh.



Conjuncture, accomhal.



Connected, accomhalta; is con-
nected, accomhaltar.



Connected speech, eallach insge.



Connection, cobhás, comhar, eallach,
m.



Consecutive, leanamhnach, leantach.



Consequence, iomaircidheadas, m.;
iarmhairt, f.



Consequent, iarmharthach.



Conservation, forchoimhéadas.



Consignificant, comhthóirneadhach.



Consonance, comhfhoghar, m.



Consonant, conson (consan), f.,
consoine, comhfhuaim, comhfhogh-
rughadh.



Consonantal, consonda.


L. 139


Conspicuous, saineamhail.



Constant, tairismheach.



Constructio ad intellectum, gléas
tuigse, ex. nochtaid an fhuireann
sain.



Construction, comhshreath, iomfhoghnamh,
cruth, gléas, cumhdach, dul, im-
theacht, “tá dul na Gaedhilge
air;” “tá imtheacht na Frainncise
faoi;” construction of parts,
iomfhoghnamh rann; construction
with, iomfhoghnamh le.



Construe with, v., bheirim le; it is
construed with a genitive, bheir-
tear le geinidin é.



Construed, to be, v., foghnaim; they
are not construed with their geni-
tives, ní fhoghnaid le n-a ngein-
idnibh. (Latinism, but very suit-
able for Irish).



Contemporaneous, comhaimsearach.



Context, coibhghe, f.



Contingency, teagmhaise, f. 5; teag-
mhas.



Continuation, greasgughadh, leanamh-
aint.



Contraction, ciorrughadh.



Contraction (a mark), nod (“is leor
nod do'n eolach,” “a contraction
is enough for the scholar,” prov.);
cuairnéal.



Contradictory rule, frithriaghail.



Contradistinction, cros-dealughadh,
cros-comórtas.



Contrary, codarsna, contrárdha
(used as n.); in contrary to it, i
gcodarsna dó.



Conventional, coitcheann, nósmhar.



Converse, n., friothaghaidh.



Conversion, iompódh, comhthódh; its
conversion into r; a chomhthódh i n-r.



Convert, v., comhthódhaim (i, into).



Co-ordinate, comh-chéimneach, comh-
iarmharthach.



Co-ordination, comh-chéimniughadh, comh-
iarmhairt.



Copula, nasg, m.



Copulative, leannánach.



Correlative, cóimhfhreagarthach.



Correspondence, cóimhfhreagairt,
Cómhchaidreamh.



Correspond, v., imfhreagraim, frith-
ionnlaim, comhfhreagraim.



Correspondence, imfhreagra, comh-
fhreagairt, frisinnle.



Corresponding, a., imfhreagarthach,
comhfhreagarthach, frithionnlach.



Corrupt, truaillidhe (O. Ir., druál-
nide), loitthe.



Corruption, truailliughadh, lot,
milleadh.



Crasis, táthughadh.



Cumulative, dumhaightheach.



Current, adj., ionaithriste.



Dactyl, dactil.



Dative, adj., tabharthach, tairgeach.



Dative, noun, tuilréim, tabhar-
thaidh, m. (gen. -adha); with the
dative, le tabharthaidh (construing
with).



Dative absolute, fras-tuilréim.



Declension, diall, m. (gen. díll);
díochlaonadh; soidhbhreas; the de-
clension in each of the two parts,
an diall ó cheachtar de'n dá rann;
a neuter plural according to the
first declension, iolar neódair ar
an gcéad diall; it has the
feminine declension, is diall
féimhin atá air; according to the
second declension, iar ndiall tan-
aise; it is of two declensions,
bídh ar dhá dhiall.



Declinability, dilleadhcha, f.



Declinable, indíll, indíochlaonta,
iontsoidhbhris, dilleadhach.



Decline, diochlaonaim, deallaim.



Declined, díochlaonta, le diall.



Decomposita, deachomhshuidhighthe (Lat.)



Deduce (from), v., airbheirim (as);
their cases are deduced from them,
both in the singular and plural,
airbheirtear a dtuisil asta, idir
uathadh agus iolar.



Defection, easbhaidh.



Defective, easbhadhach, tearcach.



Define, v., cinnim.



Definite, n., cinnteach.



Definite, a., érchinnte, cinnte, críoch-
nuighthe.



Definition, cinneadh, earchaoileadh.



Degree, céim.



Demonstrate, v., foillsighim.



Demonstration, tasbeánadh, foill-
siughadh.


L. 140


Demonstrative, treoraidheacht, tais-
beántach.



Denomination, ainmniughadh.



Denominative, ainmnidheach, m.



Denoting, act of, torann, m.



Dependence, béim fosgtha (béim
fasgtha); gan bhéim fosgtha i n-a
chéile, without dependence on
one another, independent of one
another.



Dependent, neamhfhras, daor.



Deponent, n., diusgartach, m.



Deponential (deponent), diusgar-
tachda.



Deprecative, itche.



Derivation, iarmbunudhas, airbheart,
f.; díoshruthughadh (also díorshuidh-
iughadh, díoruidhiughadh), Lat.



Derivative, díoshruthuighthe, díorshuidh-
ighthe, iarmbunudhsach.



Derivative abstracts, anmanna gein-
eamhnacha.



Derive, v., díoshruthuighim, díorshuidh-
ighim, airbheirim (as, from); an
tréidhe sin do airbhirt as an
ainmnidh, to derive those three
from the nominative.



Derived, díoshruthuighthe, díorshuidh-
ighthe; it is derived from, tháinig
sé ó; a present is not derived
from this, ní airbheirtear freac-
nairc as so.



Determinate, a., dearbh.



Determination by Christian name,
sunnradh anma baisde.



Determine, v., cinnim.



Determining, cinneadh.



Deuterotonic, athaiceannda.



Development, nochtadh, leathnughadh,
osgailt.



Diaeresis, ionnlach, m.



Dialect, canamhain(t), f.



Dialectic, canamhnach, canamhain-
teach.



Dialectically, do réir chanamhna, go
canamhnach; they speak d., tá
canamhaint ortha.



Dialecticism, canamhnachas.



Dialogue, iomagall, iomagallamh,
agallamh.



Diction, focal, caint, imtheacht (na
cainte).



Dictum, dligheadh.



Difference, deachar, m.; deifir, f.;
deifridheacht; deifriughadh (Ur.
na nÉig. and Mon.).



Difference of rendering, deibhe tion-
todha.



Different, sain, éagsamhail.



Differentiate, eilighim; to differen-
tiate one sound from another,
foghar d'eiliughadh le fogar
eile.



Differentiation, eiliughadh.



Difficult, doirbh, deacair, cruaidh,
airc, docamhlach.



Difficulty, airc, docamhal, cruas.



Digamma, digaim, m. (gen. digaim,
digamsa).



Digression, taoibhréim, taoibhréim-
niughadh (act of), eadaraisnéis,
iomthaineach (m.), iomthoineadh.



Dilemma, aincheas.



Diminish, laghdughadh.



Diminution, díoghbháil, laghdughadh.



Diminutive, n., deidhbhle, laghdughadh,
díghabhthach.



Diminutive, in -ín, dísbeagadh.



Diminutive in -án, bráthair dís-
beagadh.



Diminutive in -óg, siúr dísbeagadh.



Dionyma, déainmnighthe.



Diphthong, deoghar, m.; deaghfhoghar,
m.; deaghfhoghrach, m.; adhol.



Diphthongation (diphthongisation,
diphthongalisation), deoghras.



Direct speech, caint díreach.



Disagreeable (of pronunciation),
dochuirdhe.



Disagreeableness (of pronunciation),
dochradh; is d. leo n i ndiaidh m,
they deem n after m disagree-
able.



Discourse, insge, f.; aitheasg, m.



Discriminate, eidirdhealuighim.



Disjunction, díonasgadh.



Disjunctive, díonasgach, dealuigh-
theach.



Disjunctive pronoun, forainm aon-
air.



Dissyllabic, díaltach, dáshiollach,
déshiollabach.



Dissylabism, déshiollabaighe, f.



Dissyllable, dáshiolla, díalt, déshiol-
lab, régcomharc.



Distinct (from), eadarsgartha (le).


L. 141


Distinction, deachar, m., fodhail, f.
(gan fodhail cinéil, without dis-
tinction of gender); dearscughadh,
deachrughadh.



Distinguish, v., dearscuighim, fodh-
laim, deachruighim.



Diverse, sain, éagsamhail.



Diversity, éagsamhlas.



Division, fodhail, f.



Dot, goin, f.



Double, v., eamhnaim, dúbluighim.



Double, diabhal, dúbalta; teann
(of liquids), nn = nuin teann, rr =
ruis teann, ll = luis teann.



Doubled, eamhanta, eamhnuighthe.



Doubling, eamhnadh, dúblughadh, dúb-
ladh, diabhladh; this is what has
caused doubling, is é fá ndeara
eamhnadh.



Doubtful, amhrasach; it is doubtful
what their genitive makes, is con-
tabhairt cé rud do-ghní a ngeinide.



Dual, n., déidhe, f.



Dual, adj., deidheach.



Duality, déidheacht, bionáir (Lat.).



Duration of time, rith an ama, feadh
na haimsire.



Ease of pronunciation or speech
(fluency), saoráid, f.



Easy (of pronunciation), saor.



Eclipsable, inteimhle, ionurdhubhtha.



Eclipsed, urdhubhtha.



Eclipsis, urdhubhadh, teimheal, timcheo.



Ejection (elision), ionnarbadh.



Element, dúil, f.; mír, f.



Elemental, príomh-, dúil-.



Elementary, foroideasach.



Elision, glanadh, ionnarbadh.



Ellipsis, earchra; through ellipsis
of esse, tré earchra an nídh is
esse.



Eloquence, suilbhire.



Emendation, coigeirt, f.



Emphasis, brígh, treis.



Emphatic form, fuirm bhisigh, fuirm
threise.



Emphatic particle, biseach deiridh,
biseach.



Enclisis, cúlaiceanntas.



Enclitic, adj., cúlaiceanntach.



Enclitic, noun, cúlaiceanntóir.



Enclitic accent, cúlaiceann, m.



End, n., foircheann; on the end, i
bhfoircheann (of accent); at the
end, fó dheodh.



End, v., faoidhim, críochnuighim, for-
cheannaim, fuinim; end in, dul
i; it will not end in -e, ní hi n-e
rachas sé; it is not in -gi they
end their preterite, ní in -gi fhaoi-
dhid a seachmhadhacht.



Ending, déidheanach, m.; tarmoir-
cheann, m.; dul i, e.g., dul na
geinidean in -i, the ending of the
genitive in -i.



Enhancement, iomdhughadh.



Epenthesis, iontsáthadh.



Epenthetic, astránach, iontsáith-
teach; e. particle, iontsáighteán.



Ephthongs, eabhaidhe.



Epicene gender, bainfhirinsgne.



Epigram, forliteardha.



Epitome, taibe, athchuimre.



Equal in number of syllables, cómhlíon
i líon siollab.



Equality, cumad, comhthrom; on an
equality with, i gcumad le.



Equating (“rapprochement”), cud-
rumughadh.



Equivalent (to) adj., ionann (agus).



Equivalent, n., malairt, samhail.



Erroneous, comhroirgneach, seach-
ránach, tuathalach.



Error, iomroll, seachrán, comhror-
gain.



Etymologist, focalfhréamhaidhe (fo-
calphréamhaidhe).



Etymology, eitheamhlaghas; forus-
fhocail; focal-fhréamhacht (focal-
phréamhacht).



Etymon, sanas.



Euphonious, binn.



Euphony, binneas.



Event, críoch, f.



Example, deismireacht, solaoid
eisiompláir, sompla, deisiom-
láir (dial.); to give an e. of,
deismireacht do thabhairt ar; for
an example, ar dheismireacht, mar
shompla (mar sholaoid, m. sh.);
he has cited no example of it, ní
thug sé a dheismireacht.



Excepted, saor.



Exception, eisceacht, eisceaptas.



Exemplify, v., deismireachtuighim.


L. 142


Exhortation, neartadh, laoidheadh.



Exposition, lathar, m.



Express, v., cuirim (roimh, &c.),
soillsighim, iomchaintighim, air-
bheirim, sluinnim, eastoisgim;
this is the Greek for it when the
meaning of an active verb is ex-
pressed by it, a Ghréigis an ní seo
an tan airbheirtear (bhaintear)
ciall bréithre gníomha as; to ex-
press two things, déidhe do air-
bheirt.



Expression, slonn, eibeirt, iom-
chaint, eastuasg, aisnéis; an ex-
pression of the meaning of pos-
session, slonn céille áitribh.



Expressive, iomchainteach.



Extensive (abundant), foirleithea-
dach, foirleitheadamhail, leith-
eadach.



Extensive, (perfected), eisgseanda.



External, foirimeallach.



Extension, foirleathnughadh, foir-
leithead.



Extinction, múchadh, báthadh, díochur.



Facility of utterance, blastacht,
deagh-ghlór.



Fact, gníomh, m.; rud.



Facticious, n., forcmachta, m.



Failure, earchra; through the failure
of the passive, tré earchra ful-
aingthe.



Faint (sound), lag, caoin.



False analogy, gó-analach



Female, adj., boineann; a female =
boineannach, f.



Feminine, a., banda, ban-, bain-
insgneach.



Feminine, n., féimhean, gen. féimhein,
féimhin.



Feminine gender, baininsgne.



Figura composita (compound noun),
fíoghair chomhchóirighthe, ex. grian-
shruth, deaghdhuine, &c.



Figura simplex (simple noun), fíogh-
air aonaránach, ex., lámh, cos, &c.



Figurative, tropdha.



Figure, fíoghair, f.; (metaphor),
dolbhadh, fuath.



Figure of speech, trop, m., gen.,
truip; a variation of figure of
speech, sainiughadh truip.



Figures of numerals, na noda áireamh.



Final, n., foircheann, déidheanach.



Finite, a., críochach, cinnte.



Finite, n., cinnteach, m.; a genitive
of the finite, geinide chinntigh.



First person plural, sinn-nae, an
chéad phearsa de'n uimhir iolraidh.



First person singular, mé-nae, an
chéad phearsa de'n uimhir uathaidh.



First principle, príomh, f.



Fixed, tuidhmhidhe, seasta.



Foot, troigh, f.; a syllable over two
feet, siollab ar dhá throigh; un-
wonted foot, troigh éagmhailt;
foot of four short syllables, troigh
ceatharghairid.



Force of accent, neart aicinn.



Form (from), v., do-ghním (déanaim)
de (nó as); proper names are
formed from them, do-ghníthear
anmanna dílse díobh.



Form, (shape), fuath; cruth; fuirm:
cuma; déanamh.



Form, n., forghnúis (do aon fh., to
one form), fuirm; in form, i
bhforghnúis; gné.



Formation, cruthughadh, dolbhadh.



Form-word, iarmbéarla.



Frequentative, n., minicightheach.



Full, lán; a full sound, son lán.



Future, adj., fáistineach, rae-dhúil-
each, oirthearach.



Future, noun, fáistine, todhochaidhe.



Futurity, fáistineacht, oirthearacht.



Gender, cinéal, insgne (insgin).



General, cinéalach, coitchionnta.



Generality, cinéalaighe, f.



Generative, tuisteanach.



Generic, cinéalach.



Genitive, adj., geineamhnach, deil-
bheach.



Genitive, noun, geinide, f. 5;
taoibhréim.



Gerund, geirionn, m.; oibriughadh
(= gerunds, pl.).



Glide, sleamhnach.



Gloss, gluais; as a gloss upon acer,
do ghluais ar acer.



Government, ceannsal, riaghlughadh.



Gradation, allfhuaim, réimniughadh.



Grammar, broinnfhréamh, uraiceacht,
gramadach (f.), graiméar (A.).


L. 143


Grammarian, gramadach, m.



Grave accent, cúlfhleasg, graibh;
the grave accent on them, graibh
oraibh.



Grecism, Gréagdhacht (P.C.), Gréa-
gachas.



Group, drong, f.; a verbal group,
drong bhriathardha.



Guarantee, ráthughadh.



Guttural, a., tlochtach, sgórnamhail.



Guttural sound, tlocht, garbhshon.



Habitual, gnáthbhéasach.



Habitual past, leithdheimhniughadh.



Half-sound, leath-shon.



Headline, cinnsgríbhinn, réimhlíne.



Heptasyllable, claidheamhnas.



Heteroclite, míbheachtach.



Hexasyllable, luibhne-chosach.



Hiatus, méanughadh.



Historical present, láthaireach aith-
riste.



Historical tense, rae aithriste.



Homonym (word), comhshon, éan-
tson; (inflection), éanalt, comhalt;
(similar sense) cosmhail ainmnigh-
theach.



Hypothesis, leagadh, ceapadh, bar-
amhail, tuairim, cás.



Hypothetical comparison, comórtas
tuairme, coimhmeas i gcás.



Identical (with), cuma (nó).



Illumination, forsunnadh, ionshorch-
ughadh.



Immediately follow, lean i n-aice.



Immutability, neamhchumhsgughadh.



Immutable, neamhchumhsguighthe.



Immutable consonant, seasmhach.



Imperative, fuláireamh, coingeach,
forgarthaidh.



Imperfect, a., anfhoirbhthe.



Imperfect, n., leithdheimhniughadh.



Impersonal, eircghiollach, teircghiol-
lach.



Impersonal passive, neimhinsgne.



Inanimate, neamhanamamhail.



Inchoative, tionnsgantach.



Incongruity, mífhreagairt.



Inconsonance, neamhchomhfhoghar.



Inconstant, neamhthairismheach.



Incorporating, comhshnadhmthach.



Incorporeal, neamhchorpdha.



Increase of pronoun (emphatic post-
fix), barr.



Increase, v., bisigh, méaduigh, for-
bair.



Increase, v., biseach, forbart, tór-
mach.



Increased, tórmachta, bisighthe.



Increment, fortórmach.



Indeclinable, do-dhíll, do-dhíochlaon-
ta, neamhdhilleadhach.



Indefinite, éigcinnteach, aimhchríochach,
anchuimseach, éigcríochdha.



Indefiniteness, éigcríochdhadas, m.



Independent, fras.



Indicative, adj., tásgach, foillsigh-
theach.



Indicative, noun, foillsiughadh; in-
didhid (gen. indidheada), Lat.



Indiscriminate, cumasgtha.



Indivisible, neamhfhodhlaidhe.



Inelegant, míostuamdha.



Infection, iontlaise.



Infinite (aorist), éigcríochdha.



Infinitive, iardhaigheach, deimhneach,
infinid (Lat.).



Infinity, éigcinntighe, f., éigcríocha-
das, m.



Infixation, lár-chur, cur i lár.



Infixed pronoun, forainm láir.



Inflection, filleadh.



Inflectional, fillteach.



Influence (on or over), cumhacht (ar).



Infraction of a law, forbhriseadh
dlighidh.



Initial, tosach, túsach, tinn-chruth.



Initial assimilation, iomshamhlughadh.



Initial variation, athrughadh tosaigh.



Inscription, forliteardha, f.; sgríbh-
neoireacht (pop.), insgríbhinn, f.
(but m. in O. Ir., dat. inscribund).



Inseparable, neimheadarsgarthach.



Insert, v., bheirim i; is epenthesis
do-bheir t ann, it is an epenthesis
that inserts a t in it; ionsnadhaim.



Instruction, foirceadal, m.



Instrumental, n., gléastach.



Instrumental dative, gléas-tuil-
réim, tabharthaidh gléasta.



Integral (integer), ógh, m.



Integrity, óighe, f.



Intensitive (intensive), n., aidhbhligh-
theoir.



Intensification, aidhbhliughadh.


L. 144


Intensive, aidhbhlightheach, teanntásach.



Intentive, a., indidhmheach.



Iteration, miniciughadh.



Interception, eadarghabháil, f.



Interchange, n., iomlaoid, malairt.



Interjection, interiacht, uaillbhreas.



Intermediate, meadhónda.



Internal, inmheadhónach.



Internal declension, diall inmheadh-
ónach.



Interpose, v., eadarghabhaim; it is
m that interposes b to it, m eadar-
ghabhas b chuige.



Interposed, eadarshuidhighthe.



Interpretation, eadarceirt, f., gen.
eadarcearta.



Interrogation, iomchomharc, ceas-
nughadh, ceistiughadh.



Interrogative, a., caidridheach, fia-
fruigheach, iomchomhairsneach.



Interrogatives, iomchomhairsneacha.



Intervene, v., bheith idir.



Intervention, eadartheacht, eadar-
gabháil.



Intonation, tuin, blas.



Intransitive, neamhaistreach.



Intrinsic (inherent), inmhéith; from the
intrinsic sound of the digamma
that name (vau) has been given to
the power, ó fhoghar inmhéith an
digaim tugadh an t-ainm sin do'n
chumhachta.



Introflection, crosfhilleadh.



Invention, aireag, m.; gen. airig.



Inversion, iomthús, cor, casadh; in-
version is used in songs = cuirtear
cor ins an bhfocal ag gabháil cheoil
(pop.).



Iphthong, ifín.



Irregular, aimhbheacht, neimhbheachtach,
neimhriaghalda.



Irregularity, aimhbheachtaighe, aimh-
riaghail.



Isolating, aonracánuightheach.



Jargon, glafarnach, tualchaint,
tuathchaint, allghlór, béarlagar;
the mason's jargon, béarlagar na
saor.



Join (to), v., comhlaim (do); by
which a preposition is joined to a
genitive, tré n-a gcomhaltar réamh-
shuidhiughadh do gheinidin.



Joining (of words), táthadh, nasgadh,
ughaim.



Junction, accomhal.



Jussive subjunctive, suidhiughadh
orduighthe.



Key, sonfhuaim; réidhteach, fuas-
gailt.



Key-word, focal fuama, fuaim-
fhocal.



Kind, cinéal, gné.



Labial, béalach, pusach, puisíneach.



Last syllable, déidhean-siollab.



Law, dligheadh, m.; reacht, m.



Law of adding, riaghail tórmaigh.



Length, fad.



Lengthen, v., sín.



Lengthening, n., airdhídhean, síneadh.



Lesser part of speech, mionrann
insge.



Lesson, léigheann, ceacht, aiceacht,
leasún.



Letter, litir, f.; caireachtar, m.



Letter of two strokes (ex. n), dí-
fhleisg. f.



Letter of one stroke (ex. 1), éin-
fhleasg. f.



Levelling, comhthromughadh, socrughadh



Line, fleasg, gló-shnáithe.



Lingual, n., teangthach; adj., teang-
amhail.



Liquid, become, v., leaghaim.



Liquidation, leaghadh; the law
of liquidation, dligheadh leachta
(leaghtha).



Liquid, a., leachtach; lom.



Liquid (consonant), leachtach, f.; the
doubling of a mute before a liquid,
eamhnadh múide roimh leachtaigh.



Liquidity, leachtaighe, f.



Loan-word, focal áirleagtha, iasacht,
focal iasachta.



Locality, logdhadas, m.



Locative, n., áitidh; a., áiteach.



Long, fada, oirdíosga.



Majuscule, cinnlitir.



Making fewer (fewering), uathughadh, m.



Male, fireann.



Manifestation of action, taidhbhse
gníomha; m. of a. by a person on
himself, t. g. ó phearsain air féin.


L. 145


Manuscript (vellum), meamram.



Many names, iolanmanna.



Mark, graf, comhartha, marc.



Margin, or, m., marbhán.



Masculine, a., feardha, firinsgneach,
masgalínda.



Masculine, n., masgal (mascol, &c.).



Masculine gender, firinsgne.



Meaning, intshliocht, inne, céadfadh,
ciall, brígh, baramhail; change of
meaning, cumhsgughadh inne.



Measurement (of metre), toimhsi-
dheadas, m.



Medial, lárach, láir (gen. as adj.
only).



Mere adherence, cuid atóibhthe.



Metaphor, dolbhadh, trop (gen. truip).



Metathesis, allchur.



Metre, meidear, méadaracht, tomhas,
miosúr.



Middle of the period, meadhón-teis-
timhin.



Minorative noun, laghdughadh.



Minnscule, minlitir, minicín, min-
igín, mionagadán. (The last three
mean anything small).



Mobility, cumhsguigheadas, m.



Modal adverb, dobhriathar modha.



Mode, modh, m.



Moderate, v., measruighim.



Modern, déidheanach, nua, deireannach.



Modern writer, nua-litridhe; to-day
with modern writers (they are)
common bigeneric, coitcheann dé-
chinéile indiu ag nua-litridhibh.



Modulate, v., binnighim.



Monosyllable. éintsiolla.



Monosyllabic, éintsiollabach.



Monosyllabism, éintsiollabaighe, f.



Mono-synthetic, éiniomlánta.



Monstrosity, aindligheadh, tuafaist,
fuath.



Mood, modh, aisde, eagar.



Morphology, crutheolas.



Multiply (become or make more
numerous), v., ioluighim.



Mutable consonant, malartach, m.



Mutation, comhthódh, séimhiughadh, mal-
artughadh; caolughadh, coimchlódh
(cómhiomchlódh).



Mute, a., maon.



Mute consonant, múd, m.



Mutual colloquy, iomagallamh.



Narisonant, sróinlitir, sróntson.



Narrative tense, rae aithriste, aim-
sir innste.



Nasal, múchshrónach, caochshrónach,
srónach.



Nasality, caochshrónaighe, múchsrón-
aighe, sluacht.



Natural gender, cinéal aigeanta.



Natural meaning, aigneadh; though
locality is its natural meaning, cé
gur logdhadas is aigneadh ann.



Nature, aigneadh, nádúir; by nature,
iar n-aigneadh, do réir nádúire,
ó nádúir.



Negation, diúltadh.



Negative, diúltadh, diúltach, do-
dhaimheach.



Neuter, neodar, m.; neimhinsgne,
f.; neuter plural, iolar neodair;
in the neuter, fó neodar; deimhe.



Neuter (neutral), a., neodarálda
(also occurs as noun), neimh-
insgneach, neimhneachtardha (Ur.
na nÉ.).



Neuter action, neódar-ghníomh.



Next (consonant, &c.), foisgeach;
next consonant, conson tánaise,
&c.



Next, a., tánaise; the euphony next
after (that of) vowels, an binneas
tánaise i ndiaidh guta.



Nominal, a., ainmnidhe, ainmnidheach.



Nominative, adj., ainmneach, sluin-
neach, ainmnightheach.



Nominative, noun, ainmnidh (gen.
-eadha); ainm; as nominative, do
ainmnidh; a Latin nom. sing, from
a Greek genitive, ainmnidh uathaidh
Laidionda ó gheinidin Ghréagdha;
nom. pl. neut., ainmnidh iolair
neodair (a. iol n.); it is un-
necessary for sui to have a nom.,
ní rigthear a leas ainmnidh le
sui.



Non-integer, anógh.



Non-permanent, neamhthairismheach.



Non-transgressor (non-transistor),
neamhthairmtheachtaidh.



Norm, dligheadh.



Normal, gnáthach, riaghalda, dleagh-
thach.



Not admit of eclipsis to, urdhubhadh
do dhiúltadh.


L. 146


Note of signification, nod ionchoisg.



Notion, eadargna.



Noun, ainm, m. or f., duar, m.



Noun adjective, ainm aicídeach.



Noun substantive, ainm substain-
teach. See substantive.



Noun with and governing another in
genitive, sunnradh taoibhréime, ex.
bean fhir.



Nullity, nihealas, neimhnídheacht.



Number, líon; of nouns: uimhir,
mírchar, áireamh.



Numeral, áireamh, m. or f.; uimhir.



Numeral, a., uimhrighthe, áirmhe (gen.);
numeral adjective, tládhfhocal uimh-
righthe; numeral adverb, dobhria-
thar áirmhe.



Object, cuspóir, m.



Objection, friotuideacht.



Objective, cuspórdha.



Oblique, cam.



Oblique case, cam-thuiseal.



Obscure, éideimhin, dorcha.



Obscurity, éideimhne, doircheacht.



Observance, foirchoimhéad.



Obsolete, do-aithriste.



Occasion, log, m. feacht.



Occur, to, teacht, teacht le (occur with)



Occurrence, bheith do; the occurrence
of l after ct, bheith do l i ndiaidh ct.



Ophthong, óir ('na haonar).



Opposition, contráil, friotabhairt,
friotuidheacht, frithbheart, frith-
cheist: i bhfrithcheist, in opposition;
codarsnadas, m., cé go bhfuil c.
eatortha, though there is opposi-
tion between them.



Optative, roighneach, optid (Lat.).



Oratio obliqua (indirect speech),
caint neimhdhíreach.



Oratio recta, caint díreach.



Order, ord, m.; eagar, m.; ordughadh.



Ordinal number, uimhir léirighthe.



Origin, gein bunadh, bun; I do not
know what is the origin of it, ní
fheadar cad is bun leis (dó);
from the origin, ó'n mbunadh; to
the first person which is the origin
of it, do'n chéad phearsain is bunadh
dhó; the origin of taking the place
(of other things), gein eangra-
guighthe.



Orthography, oirleaghadh; orto-
graiph.



Orthotonic, fréamhaiceannda, bun-
aiceannda.



Outside, seachtar; 'tis outside he
has put its declinability, not in
the middle, is seachtar do chuir
sé a dhilleadhcha, ní i meadhón.



Outside the law, eachtarreacht.



Palatal, carballach (carbatach), sin-
seánach.



Paradigm, clár, táibhle, réim,
dealbh; according to the same
paradigm, ar éin-deilbh; they show
a paradigm of three cases, dealbh
trí dtuiseal ortha.



Paradox, friothbharamhail, frithchéad-
faidh.



Parse, gramaduighim, léirighim,
ceartuighim.



Parsing, ceartughadh, gramadaighe,
gramadaigheacht, léiriughadh gram-
adaighe.



Part of compound, mír.



Part of speech. rann insce (rann is
fem., gen. roinne).



Participial, rannghabhálach, sruith-
bhriathrach.



Participium necessitatis, rannghabháil
éigin.



Participle, rannghabháil, sruith-
bhriathar, rainnbhriathar.



Particle, aicile, fuidhir, mionfhocal,
airtiogal.



Particularity, rannadas, m.; into
conformity of particularity, i
gcomhdheilbh rannadais.



Partition, fodhail.



Partitive, roinnteach.



Passage (of a text), log; (of a sound),
iontairmtheachtas, tairmtheacht.



Passing into, tairmtheacht i.



Passion, fulang.



Passive, fulaingtheach.



Passive verb, briathar fhulaing.



Past, dearbh-rae, seachmhadhacht, éag-
nairc.



Patronymic, n., aitheirreachtaighthe.



Peculiar, saindíleas; for the ter-
mination in -er is peculiar to the
masculine, óir is sainreadh do
mhasgal an tarmoircheann i n-er.


L. 147


Peculiarity, ruidhleas, sainreadh; it
is peculiar to, is sainreadh do.



Pentasyllable, claonre.



Penultimate (penult), réimhdhéidhea-
nach, péneuilt.



Perfect, v., líonaim; to perfect the
sense of the verb, do líonadh
intsliochta na bréithre, chum
intsliochta (le intsliocht) na
breithre do líonadh.



Perfect, a., foirbhthe.



Perfect preterite, seachmhadhacht fhoirbh-
the.



Perfected (extensive), eisgseanda.



Period, teistimhin.



Periphrasis, timcheall, tiomchaint.



Periphrastic, timcheallach, tiomchain-
teach.



Permanence, feidhliughadh; it is per-
manent, is f. dho.



Permissable, díolmhain, ceadaightheach,
ceadmhach.



Persistence, tairiseamh.



Person, pearsa, f.; nae; to speak
in the person of the gods, labhairt
i bpearsain na ndéadh; 1st pers.
pl., céad phearsa iolair (1 ph. iol.).



Personal, pearsanta, comhursach.



Personal numerals, nae-uimhreacha,
uimhreacha pearsanta (u. pearsan).



Personification, pearsanughadh.



Personified object, nídh pearsnuighthe.



Phenomenon, aiteacht, iongantas.



Phonologist, sonóir.



Phonology, soneolas, sonóireacht.



Plastic, airbhreac, iolchumtha.



Pluperfect, sárdheimhniughadh, oll-
fhoirbhthe.



Plural, n., iolar, iolradh; plural of
a participle, iolar rannghabhála;
nothing but the plural is ever used
for them, ní abairthear acht iolar
dóibh; the plural is used of, i
n-iolar adeirtear; to form a
plural number, áireamh d'iolughadh.



Plural a., iolda, iolrach múrthach,
iolair (gen. as a.); plural number,
áireamh iolair, uimhir iolraidh.



Plurality, iolradh, m.; iomadamh-
lacht. f.; iolradas; ioldadas.



Point (of time), ponc. Hence the
S. Uls. expression ar an bponc =
at once.



Polysyllabic, iltsiollabach.



Polysyllable, iltsiolla, iltsiollab.



Polysynthesis, polysyntheticism,
iliomlánaidheacht, iliomláine.



Polysynthetic, iliomlánach, iliom-
lánda.



Porrection, eiscsin, f.



Position, suidhiughadh, sosadh; in any
position of a syllable, i n-aon
tsosadh siollaibe; (for a sound)
log; at the sound of it in that
position, ag a fhoghar is an log
sin; a shuidhiughadh do (or ar), its
being put for.



Positive adj., dearbhthach.



Positive, noun, moladh nó díomholadh
posaid.



Possession, áitreabh, m.; seilbh.



Possessive, n., áitreabhthach; gen. of
the possessive, geinide áitreabh-
thaigh.



Possessive, a., sealbhaidheach, éadálach,
sealbhach, sealbhuightheach.



Possessive pronoun with noun, sunn-
radh insgne, ex. mo lámh.



Possessor, áitreabhthaidh.



Posterior verse, fearsa déidheanach.



Postfix, iarmír, f.; barr.



Postfixing (postfixation), iargcur.



Post-flection, iarbhfilleadh.



Postposition, iarsuidhiughadh, tiar-
mhóracht.



Post-text, iardteistimhin.



Potential, oilbhéimeach, cumhachtach.



Power (of letters, &c.), cumhachta.



Precede, v., foirchéimnighim, réimh-
théidhim.



Precise pronunciation, dearbh
aisnéis.



Precise sound, dearbh-fhoghar.



Predicate, gníomh.



Predication, gníomhughadh.



Predicative, gníomhuightheach.



Preeminence, dearsgughadh.



Preface, réamhaisnéis, brollach,
réamhrádh.



Prefix, réimhmhír, réamhfhuidhir.



Prefixed, i réimhtheachtas; prefixed
to nouns, i réimhtheachtas le han-
mannaibh.



Prefixing, réamhchur.



Prefix (to), v., réamhchuirim le).



Pre-flection, réimhfhilleadh.


L. 148


Prehistoric, réamhaimseardha, réamh-
shaoghalta.



Premission, réamhshamhughadh.



Preposition, réamhshuidhiughadh, táth-
fhocal, réimhbhéarla, réimhiughadh.



Prepositional pronoun, comhréamh-
shuidhiughadh.



Prepositive, réamhfhuirmeadhach.



Present, a., láthaireach, freacnairc;
adv., i láthair, i bhfreacnairc.



Preter (preterite), deimhniughadh,
láindeimhniughadh.



Preterperfect, deimhniughadh, láin-
deimhniughadh.



Preterite, seachmhadhacht.



Pretonic, réamhaiceannda.



Previously adduced (or brought for-
ward), réamhtháirgidhe.



Primary, a., céadaidhe.



Primary pronunciation, príomhshon.



Primitive, n., céadaidhe.



Primitive origin, céadaidheadas, m.



Primitive state, prímhdhealbh.



Principle, dligheadh, m.; through the
principle of its remaining in (its)
integrity with an s following it,
tré dhligheadh feidhlighthe di-se i
n-óighe agus s i n-a tiarmhóracht.



Proclisis, bioraiceanntas.



Proclitic, adj., bioraiceanntach.



Proclitic, noun, bioraiceanntóir.



Proclitic accent, bioraiceann, m.



Produce (a sound), v., turgabhaim;
produce liquidity, leaghaim do;
(sound), foghar do dhúsgadh (dhúis-
eacht): ní dhúisigheann sé foghar
mar do dhúiseochadh na consona,
it does not produce sound as con-
sonants do (cf. do dhúisigh sé an
chaint, &c.).



Production (of vowels), turgbháil, f.;
airdhidean.



Prohibitive, cosgach.



Prolepsis, réamhghabháil.



Proleptic, réamhghabhálach.



Prolongation, iomfhadughadh.



Pronoun, forainm, pronoibhean (pro-
noimhean) (dpl. pronoibhnibh).



Pronounce, v., canamhnaim, canaim,
foghruighim.



Pronunciation, aisnéise, f. 5; foghar,
m.; ionlabhradh, m.; ailbhlas;
canamhain; labhradh, m



Proper nature (naturality), dúil-
teadas.



Proper noun, ainm díleas.



Property, feabhta, m. (gen. -adh),
buaidh, f.



Propriety, dílse (dísle).



Prose, caint sgurtha, prós.



Prosody, áilbhlas.



Protasis, céidbheart, f.



Prototonic, reamhaiceannda.



Provincial, cúigidheach.



Provincialism, cúigidheachas, cúig-
eachas.



Purpose, airdhéarghadh; here he has
his purpose at last a a. leis fá
dheoidh annso.



Quadrisyllable, feileas.



Quality, inne; cáilidheacht; cáil;
fobhta.



Quantity, suimeamhlacht.



Question, ceist, iomchomharc.



Quiescent, maon.



Radical (letter), prímhlitir.



Radix, príomh, f.; fréamh; bunu-
dhas.



Reading of text (in connexion), sreath
léighinn.



Recapitulation, béim forais, aith-
bhéim.



Reciprocal pronoun, forainm athchomh-
chladhach.



Recite, v., airléighim, aithrisim.



Re-commentory, athráchtadh.



Redditive, n., érreathach, f.



Re-demonstration, athfhoillsiughadh.



Re-demonstrative, a., athfhoillsigh-
theach.



Redundance, iomdhughadh.



Reduplication, aitheamhnadh, athdhia-
bhal.



Refer to, v., tréimhdhírighim do,
luaidhim.



Reflexive, aiththeilgtheach, frithfhill
teach.



Regular, riaghalda, beachtach; gnáth-,
gnáthach; bean is regular as nomi-
native, is riaghalda “bean” do'n
ainmnidh.



Regular noun, deacht duar, ainm
riaghalda.



Reiterative, athráidhteach.


L. 149


Relative, gaolmhar, gaolmharach,
carchleathach.



Relative form, modh gaolmhar.



Removal (removing), n., fóxal; by
removing e, tré fhóxal e.



Repetition, aithris; miniciughadh
(frequent repetition, iteration).



Represent, v., ionadaim.



Resolution (dissolving a word into
its component parts), tuaslagadh.



Resolutives, n., tuaslaiceacha.



Respectively, fá seach.



Responsives, n., athaisnísneacha.



Rough breathing, dasian (Grecism).



Rudiments, foirtheagasg, céadtús,
foroideas.



Rule, riaghail, dligheadh; according
to the Attic rule, fó riaghail
atacdha; in accordance with rule,
dlightheach.



Second person plural, sibh-nae, an
dara pearsa de'n uimhir iolraidh.



Second person singular, tú-nae, an
dara pearsa de'n uimhir uathaidh.



Secondary, iochtaránach.



Secondary word (in prosody), iar-
mbéarla.



Sematology, cialleolas.



Semivowel, leathghuta, leathghuthaidhe.



Sentence, breith, rann.



Separate, v., eadarsgaraim.



Separate, a., fodhlaidhe.



Separation, dealughadh, eadar-
sgaradh, iomsgar.



Sequence of tenses, rae-iarmhairt.



Series (succession), fochéimniughadh,
sreath; the construction in which
it is in a series of parts of speech,
an t-iomfhoghnamh i mbí i sreith
rann.



Sex, gné, cinéal.



Shape (of letter), tórann.



Shifting, cumhsgughadh.



Short, gairid, gearr, tiomarta,
breibh; always short, biothghairid.



Shortening (of a vowel, &c.), tiomor-
gain, f.; gen. tiomoirgne.



Sibilance, siosarnach, siosaireacht,
siosán.



Sibilant, siosánach.



Sigmatic future, fáistine suile.



Sign, cron, comhartha, foidhreacht.



Signification, ionchosg, torann,
intsliocht, foladh, gnáth-bhrígh,
airdhe-ghnúisiughadh, airdhiughadh.



Significant, airbhearta.



Signify, v., toirnim, cialluighim,
ionchoisgim.



Silence (render mute), v., tochtaim,
tostaim.



Silent, being, earthuasacht.



Similarity, cosmhaileas, dálta,
fearacht.



Similitude, cosmhaile, samhaltas,
iontamhail.



Simple, diuid; from simple parti-
ciples, ó rannghabhálaibh diuide.



Simple (consonant), n., faithreach,
príomh-.



Simple (sound), glé.



Single vowel, guth, aonda; guth
aonair.



Singular, adj., uathaidh (gen. as adj.);
in the singular number, i n-áirimh
uathaidh, san uimhir uathaidh.



Singular, n., uathadh.



Singular of a noun substantive,
tréan-uathadh.



Singularity, uathadh, aondacht.



Slender, caol.



Slender sound, séimh, f.; tana, f.



Smooth breathing, séimh, f., psílen
(Grecism).



Softness, buige.



Solecism, baicbhéarla.



Solution (of a question), réidhteach,
fuasgailt, tuaslagadh.



Sonant, cruaidh.



Sort, cinéal, sadhas, sórt.



Sound, foghar, m.; son, m. (gen.
suin); guth, m.; ionlabhradh.



Sound (be pronounced), v., sonaim,
canamhnaim, canaim.



Sound-shift (Lautverschiebung), son-
chumhsgughadh.



Special, sainghnúiste, saindíleas,
sainreadhach; special case, an
tuiseal sainreadhach.



Special figure (special form), sain-
ghnúis, f.



Species, gnúis, gné.



Speech, insge, f.; urlabhra.



Spell, v., litrighim.



Spelling, litriughadh, litreacht.



Spondee, tóxal, m


L. 150


Spondeic, tóxalda.



Stand for, to, bheith do; it stood for
a nom. and for a gen. with the
ancients, do bhí sé d'ainmnidh agus do
gheinidin ag ársaidhthibh.



Standard, comhthrom, riaghail.



Standpoint, leath, rann: from the
standpoint of, a (as) leith, a (as)
rann.



Statement, insge, f.



Stem, tamhan, m.; bun.



Stroke, fleasg, f.



Structure, cumhdach, m.



Subdivision, athroinn, mionroinn.



Subject, gníomhaidhe, adhbhar.



Subjunction, fóaccomhal; in sub-
junction, i bhfóaccomhal; it is
common both in anteposition and
subjunction, coitcheann é idir
réamhshuidhiughadh agus fóaccomhal.



Subjunctive, noun, suidhiughadh.



Subjunctive, a., fóaccomhailteach.



Sub-ordinate, fo-chéimneach, fo-iar-
mharthach.



Sub-ordination, fo-chéimniughadh, fo-
iarmhairt.



Subsequence, tiarmhóracht.



Substance, foladh, m.



Substantive, n., tréan, ainm sub-
stainteach, lánfhocal, ainm-fhocal.



Substantive, adj., tréan, substain-
teach, féadh.



Substantive relative, tréan-ghaol-
mharach, gaolmharach folaidh.



Substantive verb, briathar fholaidh.



Succeed (follow), v., fochéimnighim.



Suffixed pronoun, forainm deiridh.



Superfluous addition to the example,
toghleanamhain deismireachta (lit.
adherence of the example).



Superfluous determination, iomarca
sunnartha.



Superlative (adj.) sairchéimeach.



Superlative (noun), áirdiomarbháidh,
áirdiomrádh, supearlaid (Lat.).



Supine, duarbhriathar.



Supply its place, to, a fheidhm do
fhreagairt.



Supposition, ceapadh, dóigh, saoilsin.



Suppress, v., bacaim, caduighim,
múchaim, báidhim.



Suppression, báthadh, múchadh, cadadh.



Surd, bog.



Surpass, v., foruaislighim.



Syllable, siollab, siolla; less by
one syllable, lugha i n-aon tsill-
aib.



Synaeresis, accomhal, m.; tóbha;
comhdhlúthadh; per synaeresin, tré
chomhdhlúthadh, tré accomhal, trí
thóbha.



Syncopated, lárghlan, ciorruighthe.



Syncope, lárghlanadh, ciorrughadh,
sionagóip (Lat.).



Synecdoche, eadargaire.



Synezesis, comhghlanadh.



Synonym, cóimhbhrigh (c. dhó é, it is a
synonym of it), comhainmnightheach, f.



Synonymous, cóimhbhríoghmhar, comh-
ainmneach, cóimhchiallach.



Syntactical, cóimhréireach.



Syntax, cóimhréir, comhtháthadh, comh-
tháth.



Synthesis, cóimhiomláine.



Synthetic, cóimhiomlán, cóimhiom-
lánta.



Syntheticism, cóimhiomlántas.



Take, v.: he takes saepissime as
a numeral adjective, dobhriathar
áirmhe leis saepissime.



Taking the place of, eangragughadh;
verb eangraguighim or gabhaim
eangraig + gen.



Temporality, aimsearadh.



Tendency, fonn, bara, claon, claon-
adh; its tendency is in this direc-
tion, tá a bhara an ród so (Sc.),
tá a bhara faoi bualadh mar so.



Tense, rae, aimsir, am.



Terminate, v., críochnuighim, fuinim.



Termination, déidheanach, m.; foir-
cheann; fuin, f.; tarmoircheann;
if their termination be the same
with Greeks and with Latins, má's
ionann tarmoircheann dóibh ag
Gréagaibh agus ag Laidneoiríbh.



Terminational, foircheannach, fui-
neach, tarmoircheannach.



Terminational assimilation, tulsamh-
lughadh.



Text, teistimhin, f.; téax (téx);
canóin (sacred).



The t- following article, t sunn-
artha.



Theorist, teoraidhe.


L. 151


Theory, teoir, f.



Thesis, iomchomhrádh.



Third person plural, iad-nae, an
treas pearsa de'n uimhir iolraidh.



Third person singular feminine,
í-nae, an treas pearsa de'n
uimhir uathaidh bhaininsgne.



Third person singular masculine,
é-nae, an treas pearsa de'n
uimhir uathaidh firinsgne.



Third person singular prepositional
pronoun, feminine gender, comh-
réamhshuidhiughadh í-nae. (So also
with others: c. é-nae, c. mé-nae,
&c.).



Totality, ógha, iomláine.



Tone, tuin, f.



Transformation, tathchur.



Transition, tairmtheachtas, aist-
riughadh, tairmtheacht.



Transitive, tairmtheachtach, aistreach.



Translate, ionntódh, tionntódh, cur
i.



Transposed n-, n- athchurtha.



Transposition, athchur.



Trigener, tréchinéala.



Trigeneric, tréchinéile.



Triliteral, tríliteardha.



Triphthong, treaghfhoghrach, triar-ol.



Trisyllabic, tréshiollabach.



Trisyllable, n., iargcomharc, tré-
shiollab.



Ultima, uilt; on the ultima, i n-uilt.



Unaccented, neamhaiceannta, gan
aiceann.



Unaspirable, do-bhuailte, do-anál-
uighthe.



Unaspirated, neimhshéimhidhe, neamh-
bhuailte, gan bhualadh, gan anál-
ughadh.



Uncertainty, éidearbhthacht, éideimhne,
indearbhas, indeirbhe.



Uncompounded (simple), i ndiuideas
(lit., in simplicity), diuid, gan
comhshuidhiughadh.



Undeclined, gan diall, gan dío-
chlaonadh.



Undergo, v., glacadh (+ object),
teacht ar or i (obj. of preceding =
nom. to very), fulaing.



Understood, to be, i bhfaoisteacht,
'na nod.



Uniform, éinghnéitheach, i gcomh-
throm.



Uninflected, neimhfhillte, gan fil-
leadh.



Unipersonal, éinphearsanta.



Unit, aon.



Unite (bring together) aonuighim.



Unite with, v., táthaim le, dlúthuighim
le.



Unity, aondacht, únáir (Lat.).



Universal accident or affection of
dictions, aicíd gheinearálta an
fhocail.



Unlimited, éigcríochdha.



Unstable foundation, fotha údmhall.



Use, feidhm, úsáid; taithighe, cleach-
tadh; in use, i bhfeidhm, &c.



Use, v., úsáidim, feidhmim, bainim
úsáid as.



Vague, doichríochta, éidearbh.



Variation, ildhéanamh, athrughadh,
sainiughadh.



Variety, breachtradh; many varieties,
ilbhreachtradh.



Various, éagsamhail.



Vary, v., sainighim (intr.), ildhéanaim.



Verb, briathar, f.



Verb neuter, pearsa insgne.



Verbal, briathardha, briathramhail;
the former occurs in St. G., the
latter in M'C.



Verbal augment, réimhbhiseach briath-
ardha.



Verbal adjective, tládhfhocal briath-
ardha.



Verbal noun, ainm briathardha, duar
briathardha.



Verbal particle, (as do, sign of past
tense, &c.), aicile bhriathardha,
airtiogal briathramhail.



Verbals, briathardhaí,



Versatile, airbhreac.



Versatility, airbhrice, f.



Verse, fears, dán.



Violation of a law, conguin dlighidh.



Vocable, eibeart, f., gen. eibeirte.



Vocalic, guthaidheach.



Vocalism, gutas.



Vocative, adj., gairmeach.



Vocation (calling, i.e., of, vocative),
toghairm; present calling, toghairm
fhreacnairc.


L. 152


Vocative, noun, gairm agallmha,
togharthaidh, m.; it is its vocative,
is togharthaidh dó é.



Voice, faoidh, f.



Volition, dúthracht.



Vowel, guta, guthaidhe, sáimh-ol;
though it begin with a vowel,
cé go dtionnsgnaidh sí ó ghuthaidhe.



What part of speech is it? Cia
rannadas bhíos innti?



Word, focal, m.; son, m.; briathar,
f.; guth, m.



Writing, sgríbhinn; an intended
writing, sgríbhinn mheanman.



Zeuxis, táthadh, dlúthughadh.