Focla Gramadhaighe

Connradh na Gaedhilge (1911)




Ar n-a chur amach



L. 1



MUCH inconvenience having resulted from the fact
that the same grammatical terms have not been in
use in all the Gaelic Colleges, the Education Com-
mittee of the Gaelic League took the initiative of
summoning a conference of all the Head Professors
for the purpose of selecting terms which might be
used in all the Colleges and at the Gaelic League ex-
aminations. This conference was held on Saturday.
June 12th, 1909, and following days; the Ard-
Ollamhna present, being:-- An Dr. Oirbh. O Dalaigh,
Colaiste na Mumhan (in the Chair); Una Ni Fhair-
cheallaigh, Colaiste Uladh; An Dr. Mac Enri, Colaiste
Laighean; Padraic O Domhnallain, Colaiste Chonnacht
and Seaghan O Cathain, Colaiste Chomhghaill, Beal

The conference, in its selection of the terms, while
giving due weight to old authorities, gave precedence
to such words as were simple, easily pronounced and
understood by the great bulk of Irish students, as
well as being of Irish origin. In a very few cases
where the old terms, many of which were translations,
syllable by syllable, from Latin, were too cumbersome
for present day needs, * the conference took the re-
sponsibility of forming (for common words) simpler
terms which would lend themselves better to use in

* For example, such words as fóaccomhailteach (subjunctive),
seachmhadhachta (past), for which they substituted foshuidhteach and

L. 2

All the decisions were quite unanimous, although
they sometimes involved the giving up of terms which
had previously been in use by particular Ard-

In the search for suitable terms much help was
derived from the following works:-- The Glosses; the
Bilingual Grammar of Tadhg Ó Coindealbháin, and its
glossary edited by Seosamh Laoide; Sanas Gramadaig,
by Tomás Ó Nualláin. The Dictionaries of Mac Cuirtin,
Coney, O'Brien, O'Reilly, Foley, Dineen, Lane, and
Fournier. Some of the terms have been suggested by
Professor Eoin Mac Neill and Canon O'Leary.

These terms have been adopted by the Education
Committee of the Gaelic League for use at all Gaelic
League Examinations.


adj. adjective.

adv. adverb.

d. dative.

f. feminine.

g. genitive.

intr. intransitive.

m. masculine.

n. noun.

pl. plural.

tr. transitive.

v. verb.

v. adj. verbal adjective.

v. n. verbal noun.

The numbers refer to the declensions and conjugations.

Ablative, adj., the a. case, an tuiseal forcarach.

Abstract, adj., an a. noun, ainm teibidhe.

Absolute, adj., the a. form, an fhuirm sgartha.

Accent, n. (mark of lengthening), síneadh, n. m., g.
sínte; (quality of pronunciation) blas, n. m. I;
(stress of voice) béim gotha, n. m. and f. 2.

Acute accent, m., bior-fhleasg, n. m. I, g. bior-fhleisg

Accusative, adj., cuspóireach; a. case, tuiseal c.

Action, n, gníomh, n. m. 3, g. gníomha.

Active, adj, an a. verb, briathar gníomhach.

Actively, adv., fá ghníomh.

Adjective, n., aidiacht, n. f. 3; a compound a., comh-
aidiacht n. f. 3.

L. 3

Adverb, n., doibhriathar, n. m. I, g. doibhriathair; an
interrogative a., d. ceisteach: an a. of manner,
d. modha; an a. of place, d. áite; an a. of time,
d. aimsire.

Adverbial, adj., doibhriathardha; an a. phrase, fo-rádh d.

Affirmative, n., dearbhadh, n. m. 3, g. dearbhtha.

Affirmative, adj., an a. answer, freagra dearbhthach.

Agent, n., gníomhaidhe, n. m. 4.

Agree with, tig le.

Alphabet, n., aibghitir, n. f. 2, g. aibghitre.

Analyse, v., dealuigh, v. tr. 2.

Analysis, n., dealughadh, n. m. 2, g. dealuighthe.

Analytic, adj., dealuighthe.

Antecedent, n., réamh-theachtaidhe, n. m. 4.

Apostrophe, n. (mark of elision), comhartha easnaimh.

Apposition, n., comh-aisnéis, n. f. 2, g. comh-aisnéise.

Article, n., alt, n. m. I, g. ailt.

Aspirate, v., séimhigh, v. tr. 2; v. n. séimhiughadh; v. adj.

Aspiration, n., séimhiughadh, n. m. 2, g. séimhighthe.

Asterisk, n., réaltóg, n. f. 2, g. réaltóige.

Attenuate, v., caoluigh, v. tr. 2, v. n. caolughadh; v. adj.

Attenuation, n., caolughadh, n. m. 2, g. caoluighthe.

Atonic, adj., gan béim, díbhéimneach.

Autonomous, adj., saor; the a. verb, an briathar saor.

Brackets, n. pl.; in brackets, fá shlabhradh.

Broad, adj., leathan.

Broaden, v., leathnuigh; v. n., leathnughadh; v. adj. leath-

Capital letter, n., cinn-litir, n. f. 2, g. cinn-litre.

Cardinal number, n., bun-uimhir, n. f. 5, g bun-uimhreach.

Case, n., tuiseal, n. m. I, g. and pl. tuisil. See
nominative, genitive etc.

L. 4

Circumflex accent, n., iomlúb, n. f. 2, q. iomlúibe.

Class, n. (of pupils), ranng, n. m. 3, g. rannga, pl.,

Clause, n., fo-rádh, n. m. I, g. fo-ráidh.

Colon, n., eadar-stad, n. m. I, g. eadar-staid.

Comma, n., gearr-stad, n. m. I, g. gearr-staid.

Common, adj., coitcheann.

Comparative, adj., the c. degree, an bhreis-chéim

Compare, v., coindealg, v. tr. I, v. n., coindealgadh.

Comparison, n., coindealg, n. f. 2, g. coindeilge.

Composition, n., (an original essay), tráchtas; (trans-
lation), tionntodh; (putting together of words).

Compound, adj., a c. word, comh-fhocal; a c. noun,
comh-ainm; a c. adjective, comh-aidiacht.

Concrete, adj., corpordha.

Conditional, adj., the c. mood, an modh coingheallach.

Conjugate, v., réimnigh, v. tr. 2; v. n. réimniughadh; v.
adj. réimnighthe.

Conjugation, n., réimniughadh, n. m. 2, g. réimnighthe.

Conjunction, n., comh-nasg, n. m. I, g. comh-naisg.

Conjunctive, adj., comh-nasgach.

Consonant, n., conson, n. f. 2,. g. consoine, pl. con-

Consonantal, adj., consonda.

Construction, n., dul, n. m. 3, that is an Irish (English,
etc.) construction, tá dul na Gaedhilge (an
Bhéarla, &rl) air sin.

Construe with, v., tabhair le.

Contraction, n., nod, n. f.

Copula, n., nasg, n. m. I, g. naisg.

Dactyl, n., daictil, n. f.

Dash, n., (where something is left out), bearna, n. f.
5, g. bearnan.

Dative, adj., the d. case, an tuiseal tabharthach.

Declension, n., díochlaonadh, n. m. 3, g. díochlaonta.

L. 5

Decline, v., díochlaon, v. tr. I, v. n. díochlaonadh; v.
adj. díochlaonta.

Deduce from, beir as.

Definite, adj., cinnte.

Degree n., céim, n. f. 2, g. céime; the positive d., an
bhun-chéim; the comparative d., an bhreis-chéim
the superlative d., an tsár-chéim.

Demonstrative, adj., taisbeántach.

Dental sound, n., foghar fiaclach.

Dependent, adj., the d. form, an fhuirm ghabhtha.

Deponent, n., diúsgartach, n. m. I, g. diúsgartaigh.

Derivation, n., fréamhughadh, n. m. 2.

Derive, v., fréamhuigh, it is derived from, tháinic sé ó.

Diaeresis, n., ionnlach, n. m. I, g. ionnlaigh.

Dictate, v., deachtuigh, v. tr. 2; v. n. deachtughadh; v.
adj. deachtuighthe.

Digamma, n., digaim, n. m., g. digama.

Dictation, n., deachtughadh, n. m. 2, g. deachtuighthe.

Diphthong, n., dé-fhoghar, n. m. I, g. dé-fhoghair.

Direct, adj., díreach.

Disjunctive, adj., díonasgach.

Dissyllable, n., dé-shiolla, n. m. 4.

Dissyllabic, adj., dé-shiollabach.

Distributive, adj., roinnteach.

Dual, adj., the d. number, an uimhir dhéidhe.

Eclipse, v., urdhubhuigh, v. tr. I; v. n. urdhubhughadh; v.
adj. urdhubhuighthe.

Eclipsis, n., urdhubhughadh, n. m. 2, g. urdhubhuighthe.

Elide, v., glan.

Elision, n., glanadh.

Ellipsis, n., earchra.

Emphatic, adj., the e. form, an fhuirm threise.

End in, dul in.

Ending, n., deireadh.

Etymology, n., foras focal.

Essay, n., (a composition), tráchtas, n. m. I, g. and pl.

L. 6

Euphony, n., binneas, n. m. I.

Example, n., deismireacht, n. f. 3.

Except, v., déan eisgeacht de.

Exception, n., eisgeacht, n. f. 3, g. eisgeachta.

Exercise, n., (material for an exercise), ádhbhar cleachttha;
(a written exercise), cleachtús, n. m. I, g. and pl.
cleachtúis; (act of practising), cleachtadh.

Expressed or understood, 'n-a rádh nó 'n-a nod.

Feminine, adj., baininnsgneach; that word is f., is
baininnsgne do'n fhocal sin.

Foot, n., troigh, n. m. 2, g. troighe, pl. troighthe.

Form, n., fuirm, n. f. 2, g. fuirme, pl. fuirmeacha.

Future, adj., the f. tense, an aimsir fháistineach.

Gender, n., innsgne, n. f. 4, g. innsgne; masculine g.,
firinnsgne; feminine g., baininnsgne.

Genitive, adj., the g. case, an tuiseal geineamhnach.

Gerund, n., geirionn, n. m. I.

Gloss, n., gluais, n. f. 2, g. gluaise; as a g. upon, do
ghluais ar.

Grammar, n., gramadach, n. f. 2, g. gramadaighe, d.

Grammatical, adj. (according to grammar) de réir na
gramadaighe, a g. treatise, tráchtas ar ghramadaigh.

Grave accent, n., cúl-fhleasg, n. m. I, g. cúl-fhleisg.

Guttural sound, n., foghar sgórnach.

Habitual, adj., gnáthach; the present h. tense, an
aimsear ghnáth-láithreach; the past h. tense, an
aimsear ghnáth-chaithte.

Hiatus, n., méanughadh, n. m. 2, g. méanuighthe.

Hyphen, n., cuing, n. f. 2, g. cuinge.

Hypothesis, n, ceapadh, n. m. 3, g. ceaptha.

L. 7

Imperative, adj., the i. mood, an modh orduightheach.

Imperfect, adj., anfhoirbhthe.

Indeclinable, adj., do-chlaonta.

Indefinite, adj., éigcinnte.

Indicative, adj., the i. mood, an modh tásgach.

Indirect, adj., neamh-dhíreach.

Infixed, adj., an i. pronoun, forainm láir.

Inflect, v., fill, v. tr. I; v. n., filleadh, v. adj. fillte.

Inflection, n., filleadh, n. m. 2, fillte.

Interjection, n., uaillbhreas, n. m. 3, g. uaillbhreasa.

Interrogative, adj., ceisteach.

Intransitive, adj., neamh-aistreach.

Irregular, adj., neamh-riaghalta.

Labial sound, n., foghar bruasach.

Lesson, n., ceacht, n. m. 3, g. and pl. ceachta.

Lingual sound, n., foghar teangthach.

Liquid sound, n., foghar leaghtach.

Locative, adj., the l. case, an tuiseal áite.

Manner, n., a noun of m., ainm modha.

Manuscript (vellum), n., meamram, n. m. I.

Masculine, adj., firinnsgneach; that word is m., is
firinnsgne do'n fhocal sin.

Meaning, n., ciall, n. f. 2, g. céille; what is the m.
of this word, céard (cad or goidé) is ciall do'n
fhocal so?

Metathesis, n., iomlaoidh.

Metre, n., meadar, n. m. i, g. meadair.

Metrical, adj., meadardha.

Monosyllable, n., aon-tsiolla, n. m. 4.

Monosyllabic, adj., aon-tsiollabach.

Mood, n., modh, n. m. 3, g. modha.

Multitude, n., a noun of m., sluagh-ainm, n. m. 3.

Mute, adj., múid; a m. consonant, múid, n. m. 2, g.

L. 8

Nasal sound, n., foghar srónach.

Negative, n., diúltadh, n. m. 3, g. diúlta.

Negative, adj., a n. answer, freagra diúltach.

Neuter, n., neódar, n. m. I, g. neódair; in the n., fá

Neuter, adj., neódardha.

Nominative, adj., the n. case, an tuiseal ainmneach.

Noun, n., ainm, n. m. 3, g. anma, pl. anmanna.

Number, n., uimhir, n. f. 5, g. uimhreach, pl. uimhreacha.

Numeral, adj., a n. adjective, aidiacht uimhreach.

Object, n., cuspóir, n. m. 3, g. cuspóra.

Oblique, adj., an o. case, cam-thuiseal.

Optative, adj., an o. phrase, fo-rádh méine.

Ordinal, adj., an o. number, ord-uimhir, n. f. 5, g. ord-

Orthography, n., litriughadh, n. m. 2, g. litrighthe.

Palate, n., coguas, n. m. I, g. coguais; hard p., c.
cruaidh; soft p., c. bog.

Palatal sound, n., foghar coguasach.

Paradigm, n., táibhle, n. m. 4, pl. táibhlí.

Parse, v. min-dealuigh, v. tr. 2; v. n. min-dealughadh; v.
adj., min-dealuighthe.

Participle, n., rannghabháil, n. f. 3, g. rannghabhála; p.
of necessity, r. éigin; p. of facility, r. usachta;
p. of difficulty, r. deacrachta; p. of fitness, r.

Participial, adj., rannghabhálach.

Particle, n., mion-fhocal, n. m. I, g. mion-fhocail.

Parts of speech, n., ranna cainnte.

Passive, n., céasadh, n. m., 3, g. céasta.

Passive, adj., a p. verb, briathar céasta.

Past, adj., the p. tense, an aimsear chaithte; the p.
habitual tense, an aimsear ghnáth-chaithte.

Perfect, adj., foirbhthe.

L. 9

Person, n., pearsa, n. f. 5, g. pearsan, d. pearsain,
pl. pearsanna.

Personal, adj., pearsanta; a p. number, uimhir
phearsanta; a p. pronoun, forainm pearsanta.

Phonetic, adj., fogharach.

Phonetics, n., foghraidheacht, n. f. 3, g. foghraidheachta.

Phrase, n., fo-rádh, n. m. I, g. fo-ráidh, pl. fo-ráidhte.

Pluperfect, adj., oll-fhoirbhthe.

Plural, adj., iolrach; the p. number, an uimhir iolrach.

Polysyllabic, adj., il-tsiollabach.

Polysyllable, n.. il-tsiolla.

Positive, adj., the p. degree, an bhun-chéim, n. f. 2.

Possessive, adj., sealbhach.

Prefix, n., réamh-mhír, n. f. 2, g. réamh-mhíre; pl. réamh-

Predicate, n., faisnéis, n. f. 2, g. faisnéise.

Preposition, n., réamh-fhocal, n. m. I, g. réamh-fhocail.

Prepositional, adj., réamh-fhoclach; a p. phrase, fo-rádh
réamh-fhoclach; a p. pronoun, forainm réamh-

Present, adj., the p. tense, an aimsear láithreach; the
p. habitual tense, an aimsear ghnáth-láithreach.

Pretonic, adj., réamh-aiceannda.

Pretonic accent, n., réamh-aiceann, n. m. I.

Proleptic, adj., réamh-ghabhálach.

Pronoun, n. forainm, n. m. 3, g. foranma, pl.

Proper, adj., a p. noun, ainm díleas.

Prose, n., prós, n. m., I, g. próis.

Prosody, n., meadaracht, n. f. 3, g. meadarachta.

Prototonic, adj., príomh-aiceannda.

Reciprocal, adj., a r. pronoun, forainm malartach.

Reflexive, adj., a r. pronoun, forainm frith-fhillteach.

Regular, adj., riaghalta.

Relative, adj., a r. pronoun, forainm coibhneasta.

Rule, n., riaghail, n. f. 5, g. riaghlach, pl. riaghlacha.

L. 10

Scan, v. siolláirimh, v. tr. 2, v. n. siolláireamh.

Scansion, n., siolláireamh, n. m. I, g. siolláirimh.

Semi-colon, n., leath-stad, n. m. I, g. leath-staid.

Semi-vowel, n., leath-ghuthaidhe, n. m. 4.

Sentence, n., rádh, n. m. I, g. ráidh, pl. ráidhte.

Series, n., sreath, n. f. 2, g. sreithe, d. sreith, pl. sreatha.

Sigmatic future, n., fáistine suile.

Sign, n., comhartha, n. m. 4, a s. of interrogation (?),
c. ceiste; a s. of exclamation (!), comhartha

Signification, n., (meaning) ciall, n. f. 2, g. céille.

Simple, adj., simplidhe.

Singular, adj., the s. number, an uimhir uathaidh.

Slender, adj. caol.

Sound, n., foghar, n. m. I, g. and pl. foghair.

Speech, n., urlabhra, n. m. 4.

Spell, v., litrigh, v. tr. 2, v. n. litriughadh; v. adj.

Spelling, n., litriughadh, n. m 2, g. litrighthe.

Spondee, adj., tocsal, n. m. I.

Stand for, bheith do or ar.

Standard, n., cothrom, n. m. I.

Stanza, n., rann, n. m. 3, g. and pl. ranna.

Stop, n., a full s., stad, n. m. I. g. staid.

Stress, n., béim, n. m. and f. 2, g. béime.

Subject, n., the subject of the verb, treóraidhe an

Subjunctive, adj., the s. mood, an modh foshuidhteach.

Suffix, n., iar-mhír, n. f. 2, g. iar-mhíre, pl. iar-mhíora.

Superlative, adj., the s. degree, an tsár-chéim.

Syllable, n., siolla, n. m. 4, siollaí.

Synaeresis, n, accomhal, n. m. I.

Syncopate, v., ciorruigh, v. tr. 2, ciorrughadh; v. adj.,

Syncopated, adj., ciorruighthe.

Synonym, n., comh-bhrígh, n. f. 2.

Synonymous, adj., comh-bhríoghmhar.

Syntactical, n., comh-réireach.

Syntax, n., comh-réir, n. f. 2, g. comh-réire.

Synthetic, adj., the s. form, an fhuirm tháithte

L. 11

Tense, n., aimsear, n. f, 2, g. aimsire, d. aimsir.

Text, n., teistimhin, n. f. 2, g. teistimhine.

Theory, n., teóir, n. f. 3, g. teóra.

Transitive, adj., aistreach.

Translate, v., tionntuigh, (to, i), v. tr. 2, v. n. tionntodh
v. adj. tionntuighthe.

Triphthong, n., trí-fhoghar, n. m. I.

Unaccented, adj., neamh-aiceannda.

Unaspirable, adj., do-shéimhighthe.

Unaspirated, adj., neamh-shéimhighthe.

Understood; expressed or u., 'na rádh nó 'na nod.

Uninflected, adj., neamh-fhillte.

Uvula, n., teanga bheag.

Uvular sound, foghar ó'n teangaidh bhig.

Verb, n., briathar, n. m. I, g. briathair, pl. briathra.

Verbal, adj., briathardha; a v. noun, ainm briathardha.

Vocative, adj., the v. case, an tuiseal gairmeach.

Voice, n., (speaking voice) glór, n. m. I, g. glóir, pl.
glórtha; (active or passive) faoidh, n. f. 2, g.
faoidhe; the active v., an fhaoidh ghníomhach; the
passive v., an fhaoidh chéasta.

Vowel, n., guthaidhe, n. m. 4, pl. guthaidhthe.


is uimhir (pearsa, tuiseal, díochlaonadh, modh,
aimsear, innsgne, &rl.) do'n fhocal, sin?
What is the number (person, case, de-
clension, mood, tense, gender, etc.) of that